Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

The journal is published on behalf of the Italian Botanical Society (www.societabotanicaitaliana.it). Founded in 1969 as Informatore Botanico Italiano, the journal was initially conceived as a place to publish proceedings of the Society, book reviews etc. During the years, however, the journal acquired scientific contents so that, in 2015, the Italian Botanical Society moved it to the Pensoft platform, with the new name Italian Botanist, in order to disseminate its contents more efficiently. It publishes original research covering all fields of Botany in its wider sense, from molecular to ecosystem levels, including Mycology. The geographical coverage of the journal is specially focused on the Italian territory, but studies from other areas are also welcome. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access, journal.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Dryad Repository Submissions

This journal is integrated with the Dryad Digital Repository to make data publication simple for authors. There is a $120 USD Data Publishing Charge for Dryad submissions, payable via the Dryad website.  For more information, please see their FAQ.

Printed Versions and Reprints

Italian Botanist is published in identical print (high-resolution, full-color) and online (PDF) versions.

Printed versions of this journal may be ordered in parts or subscribed. To subscribe please contact us by writing to orders@pensoft.net. Please, include the full delivery address, if different from that of your registration, and indicate the payment method. Please, contact us if you need a quotation or proforma invoice.

Separate issues or any number of reprints ((high-resolution, full-color) may be ordered using the online Order Reprint(s) form available under each issue or article on the journal's website.

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Prices of full-color, high-resolution printed version (separate article and complete issues)

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Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

Copyright Notice

License and Copyright Agreement

In submitting the manuscript to any of Pensoft’s journals, the authors certify that:

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Copyright Transfers

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Author Guidelines

Main Text

Title: The title should be in a sentence case (only scientific, geographic or person names should be with a first capital letter, i.e. Elater ferrugineus L., Germany, etc.), and should include an accurate, clear and concise description of the reported work, avoiding abbreviations.

Authors and Affiliations: Provide the complete names of all authors, and their addresses for correspondence, including e.g., institutional affiliation (e.g. university, institute), location (street, boulevard), city, state/province (if applicable), and country. One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that the author list, and the individual contributions to the study are accurate and complete. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all consortium members and their affiliations should be listed after the Acknowledgements section.

Abstract and Keywords: Please have your abstract and keywords ready for input into the submission module.

Body Text: Manuscripts must be submitted in English. Authors should confirm the English language quality of their texts or alternatively request thorough linguistic editing prior to peer-review at a price. Manuscripts written in poor English are a subject of rejection prior to peer-review. Use either British/Commonwealth or American English provided that the language is consistent within the paper. Each text must be written with precision, clarity, and economy, whenever appropriate in active voice and first person. Avoid the use of parenthetical comments and italics or bold for emphasis. Italian Botanist discourages the use of quotation marks except for direct quotations, words defined by the author, and words used in unusual contexts. Short quotations should be embedded in the text and enclosed in double quotation marks (''). Long quotations should be on a separate line, italicized, but without quotation marks. Single quotation marks are to be used only for a quotation that occurs within another quotation.

Spacing, Fonts, and Page Numbering: Single-space all material (text, quotations, figure legends, tables, references, etc.). Separate paragraphs with a blank line. Use a 12-point font (preferably Times New Roman or Arial).

Capitals: First capital letters should be used only in the beginning of a sentence, in proper names and in headings and subheadings, as well as to indicate tables, graphs and figure/s within the text. Software programmes should be written with capital letters (e.g., ANOVA, MANOVA, PAUP).

Italicization/Underlining: Scientific names of taxa of species and genera, long direct quotations and symbols for variables and constants (except for Greek letters), such as p, F, U, T, N, r, but not for SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), DF (degrees of freedom) and NS (non significant) should be italicized. These symbols in illustrations and equations should be in italics to match the text. Italics should not be used for emphasis, and not in abbreviations such as e.g., i.e., et al., etc., cf. Underlining of any text is not acceptable.

Abbreviations: Abbreviations should be followed by ‘.' (full stop or period; for instance: i.e., e.g., cf., etc.). In general a full stop should not be added at the end of abbreviated words if the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the last letter of the full word. For example, you should abbreviate "Eds", "Dr", "Mr" without full stop at the end. The abbreviation of circa can be either ca. or c. - this is an exception to the rule. All measures, for instance mm, cm, m, s, L, should be written without full stop.

On the use of dashes: (1) Hyphens are used to link words such as personal names, some prefixes and compound adjectives (the last of which vary depending on the style manual in use) (2) En-dash or en-rule (the length of an 'n') is used to link spans. In the context of Italian Botanist numerals, sizes, dates and page numbers (e.g., 1977–1981; figs 5–7; pp. 237–258), in addition to geographic or name associations (Murray–Darling River; a Federal–State agreement), should be separated with an en-dash. (3) Em-dash or em-rule (the length of an 'm') should be used rarely, its most common use use is for introducing a subordinate clause in the text, much as parentheses are used. In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used singly. En-dashes and em-dashes should not be spaced.

Footnotes: Avoid footnotes in the body text of the manuscript. It is always possible to incorporate the footnote into the main text by rewording the sentences, which greatly facilitates reading. Additionally, footnotes are not always handled well by the journal software, and their usage may cause your submission to fail. Footnotes are acceptable only below tables; instead of numbers, please use (in order): †, ‡, §, |, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||, ¶¶, ##.

Geographical coordinates: We strongly recommend that authors present geographical coordinates as taken from GPS or online gazetteer, or georeferencer (http://wwold.gbif.org/prog/digit/Georeferencing). Geographical coordinates must be listed in one of the following formats and should be consistent in format through the text:

Definition: The locality consists of a point represented by coordinate information in the form of latitude and longitude. Information may be in the form of

Degrees, Minutes and Seconds (DMS),

Degrees and Decimal Minutes (DDM), or

Decimal Degrees (DD).

Records should also contain a hemisphere (E or W and N or S) or, with Decimal Degrees, minus (–) signs to indicate western and/or southern hemispheres.

Example 1: 36° 31' 21" N; 114° 09' 50" W (DMS)

Example 2: 36° 31.46’N; 114° 09.84’W (DDM)

Example 3: 36.5243° S; 114.1641° W (DD)

Example 4: −36.5243; −114.1641 (DD using minus signs to indicate southern and western hemispheres)

We strongly recommend the use of Example 2 (the DDM format). The other three are also possible but will be recalculated to DDM during the process of online mapping from the HTML version of the paper.
The only restriction on format is in creating a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file. KML latitudes and longitudes must be in the DD format shouwn above in Example 4.

Units: Use the International System of Units (SI) for measurements. Consult Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (ASTM Standard E−380−93) for guidance on unit conversions, style, and usage. When preparing text and figures, note in particular that (1) SI requires the use of the rterms mass or force rather that weight; (2) when one unit appears in a denominator, use the solidus (/); for two or more units in the denominator, use negative exponents; and (3) use capital L as an abbreviation for the volumetric measure of litre.

Statistics: Use leading zeroes with all numbers, including probability values (e.g., P < 0.001). For every significant F−statistic reported, provide two df values (numerator and denominator). Whenever possible, indicate the year and version of the statistical software used.

Web (HTML) links: Authors are encouraged to include links to other Internet resources in their article. This is especially encouraged in the reference section. When inserting a reference to a web-page, please include the http:// portion of the web address.

Headings and subheadings: Main headings: The body text should be subdivided into different sections with appropriate headings. Where possible, the following standard headings should be used: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References. These headings need to be in bold font on a separate line and start with a first capital letter. Please do not number headings or subheadings.

Introduction − The motivation or purpose of your research should appear in the Introduction, where you state the questions you sought to answer, and then provide some of the historical basis for those questions.

Methods − Provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat your work. A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures, and statistical procedures is especially important in papers describing field studies, simulations, or experiments. If you list a product (e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment used. Supply complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher, and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article.

Results − Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.

Discussion − Focus on the rigorously supported aspects of your study. Carefully differentiate the results of your study from data obtained from other sources. Interpret your results, relate them to the results of previous research, and discuss the implications of your results or interpretations. Point out results that do not support speculations or the findings of previous research, or that are counter-intuitive. You may choose to include a Speculation subsection in which you pursue new ideas suggested by your research, compare and contrast your research with findings from other systems or other disciplines, pose new questions that are suggested by the results of your study, and suggest ways of answering these new questions.

Conclusion −This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance. Summary illustrations may be included.

References − The list of References should be included after the final section of the main article body. A blank line should be inserted between single-spaced entries in the list. Authors are requested to include links to online sources of articles, whenever possible! 

Where possible, the standard headings should be used in the order given above. Additional headings and modifications are permissible.

Subordinate headings: Subordinate headings (e.g. Field study and Simulation model or Counts, Measurements and Molecular analysis), should be left-justified, italicized, and in a regular sentence case. All subordinate headings should be on a separate line.

English Language Editing

This journal has well-defined policies for English language editing. Involving mandatory outsourced language editing services would considerably increase the price of the Article Processing Charges, which would become an additional obstacle for persons and institutions to publish in the journal. Therefore we rely both on the conscience of our authors to provide stylistically written texts and our editors and reviewers to filter out badly written manuscripts.

Manuscripts must be submitted in English. Authors should confirm the English language quality of their texts or alternatively request thorough linguistic editing prior to peer-review at a price. Manuscripts written in poor English are a subject of rejection prior to peer-review. Authors have to confirm by checking a tick box in the submission process that they have followed the above requirement:

[ ] I confirm that the use of English language in this manuscript is proficient. I am aware that  manuscripts in poor English will be rejected prior to peer-review. 
The submission process includes an option to request a professional linguistic and copy editing at a price of EURO 15 per 1800 characters:

[ ] I would like to request thorough linguistic editing prior to peer review at a price. I agree to cover the costs even if my manuscript is not accepted for publication.

Citations and References

Citations within the text: Before submitting the manuscript, please check each citation in the text against the References and vice-versa to ensure that they match exactly. Citations in the text should be formatted as follows: Smith (1990) or (Smith 1990), Smith et al. (1998) or (Smith et al. 1998) and (Smith et al. 1998, 2000, Brock and Gunderson 2001, Felt 2006).

References: It is important to format the references properly, because all references will be linked electronically as completely as possible to the papers cited. It is desirable to add a DOI (digital object identifier) number for either the full-text or title and abstract of the article as an addition to traditional volume and page numbers. If a DOI is lacking, it is recommended to add a link to any online source of an article. Please use the following style for the reference list (or download the EndNote style): here

Published Papers:
Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55(3): 705−731.

Accepted Papers:
Same as above, but ''in press'' appears instead the year in parentheses.
Knapp S (in press) New species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) from Amazonian Ecuador. Novon.

Electronic Journal Articles:
Agosti D, Egloff W (2009) Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2: 53. doi:


Paper within conference proceedings:
Kress WJ, Specht CD (2005) Between Cancer and Capricorn: phylogeny, evolution, and ecology of the tropical Zingiberales. In: Friis I, Balslev H, (Eds) Proceedings of a symposium on plant diversity and complexity patterns – local, regional and global dimensions. Biologiske Skrifter, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen, 459-478.

Book chapters:
Mayr E (2000) The biological species concept. In: Wheeler QD, Meier R (Eds) Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: A Debate. Columbia University Press, New York, 17−29.

Heywood VH, Brummitt RK, Culham A, Seberg O (2007) Flowering Plant Families of the World. Kew Publishing, 1−424.

PhD thesis:
Stahlberg D (2007) Systematics, phylogeography and polyploid evolution in the Dactylorhiza maculatacomplex (Orchidaceae).  PhD Thesis, Lund University, Sweden.

BBC News:  Plants 'can recognise themselves'. http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8076000/8076875.stm [accessed 25.06.2010]

Citations of Public Resource Databases:
It is highly recommended all appropriate datasets, images, and information to be deposited in public resources. Please provide the relevant accession numbers (and version numbers, if appropriate). Accession numbers should be provided in parentheses after the entity on first use. Examples of such databases include, but are not limited to:

Providing accession numbers to data records stored in global data aggregators allows us to link your article to established databases, thus integrating it with a broader collection of scientific information. Please hyperlink all accession numbers through the text or list them directly after the References in the online submission manuscript.

All journal titles should be spelled out completely and should not be italicized.

Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication date if both are given. Do not list abstracts or unpublished material in the References. They should be quoted in the text as personal observations, personal communications, or unpublished data, specifying the exact source, with date if possible. When possible, include URLs for articles available online through library subscription or individual journal subscription. URLs sould not be given for articles that are posted on personal non-institutional websites.

Authors are encouraged to cite in the References list the publications of the original descriptions of the taxa treated in their manuscript.

Illustrations, Figures and Tables

Figures and illustrations are accepted in the following image file formats with at least 300dpi resolution:

  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)

  • TIFF (with LZW compression)

  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)

  • JPEG (preferred format for photos or images)

  • GIF

  • BMP 

Should you have any problems in providing the figures in one of the above formats, or in reducing the file below 20 MB, please contact the Editorial Office at italianbotanist@pensoft.net

Figure legends: All figures should be referenced consecutively in the manuscript; legends should be listed consecutively immediately after the References. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals − i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc.); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words.

Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.

On the use of Google Maps
Please do NOT use maps produced by Google Earth and Google Maps in your publications, as these are subject of copyright! Here is an excerpt from Google Maps/Earth Additional Terms of Service:
Restrictions on Use. Unless you have received prior written authorization from Google (or, as applicable, from the provider of particular Content), you must not: (a) copy, translate, modify, or make derivative works of the Content or any part thereof; (b) redistribute, sublicense, rent, publish, sell, assign, lease, market, transfer, or otherwise make the Products or Content available to third parties; (c) reverse engineer, decompile or otherwise attempt to extract the source code of the Service or any part thereof, unless this is expressly permitted or required by applicable law; (d) use the Products in a manner that gives you or any other person access to mass downloads or bulk feeds of any Content, including but not limited to numerical latitude or longitude coordinates, imagery, and visible map data; (e) delete, obscure, or in any manner alter any warning or link that appears in the Products or the Content; or (f) use the Service or Content with any products, systems, or applications for or in connection with (i) real time navigation or route guidance, including but not limited to turn-by-turn route guidance that is synchronized to the position of a user's sensor-enabled device; or (ii) any systems or functions for automatic or autonomous control of vehicle behavior; (g) use the Products to create a database of places or other local listings information.

Tables: Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3 etc.). Tables should also have a title that summarizes the whole table, maximum 15 words. Detailed legends may then follow, but should be concise.

Small tables can be embedded within the text, in portrait format (note that tables on a landscape page must be reformatted onto a portrait page or submitted as additional files). These will be typeset and displayed in the final published form of the article. Such tables should be formatted using the 'Table object' in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review. Do not use tabs to format tables or separate text. All columns and rows should be visible, please make sure that borders of each cell display as black lines. Colour and shading should not be used, commas should not be used in numerical values.

Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as Supplementary Files. Tabular data provided as supplementary files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), as an OpenOffice spreadsheets (.ods) or comma separated values file (.csv). As with all uploaded files, please use the standard file extensions.

Supplementary Files

Online publishing allows an author to provide data sets, tables, video files, or other information as supplementary information, greatly increasing the impact of the submission. Uploading of such files is possible in Step 4 of the submission process.

The maximum file size for each Supplementary File is 20 MB.

The Supplementary Files will not be displayed in the printed version of the article, but will exist as linkable supplementary downloadable files in the online version.
While submitting a supplementary file the following information should be completed:

  • File name

  • File format (including name and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual)

  • Title of data

  • Description of data

All supplementary files should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'See supplementary file 1: Movie 1" for the original data used to perform this analysis.

Ideally, the supplementary files should not be platform-specific, and should be viewable using free or widely available tools. Suitable file formats are:
For supplementary documentation:

  • PDF (Adobe Acrobat)

For animations:

  • SWF (Shockwave Flash)

For movies:

  • MOV (QuickTime)

  • MPG (MPEG)

For datasets:

  • XLS (Excel spreadsheet)

  • CSV (Comma separated values)

  • ODS (OpenOffice spreadsheets)

As for images, file names should be given in the standard file extensions. This is especially important for Macintosh users, since the Mac OS does not enforce the use of standard file extensions. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files that are composed of more than one item).

Taxonomic Treatments

Italian Botanist will publish papers that strictly adhere the rules of the last edition of International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN). To assure this, authors are advised to follow the recommendations below.

Descriptions of new taxa (species and below) should include the following: 1) a short Latin or English diagnosis followed by a full description in English, 2) an illustration (line drawing or photograph) clearly showing the diagnostic characters, 2) a comparison of the new taxon with related taxa with a diagnostic key to identification, if appropriate, 3) a discussion of the distinctive morphological characteristics, ecology, geography, and/or reproductive biology, and 4) a statement on preliminary [at least] conservation status of the taxon being described.

New combinations take the form: New combination (Basionym author(s)) Author(s). Basionym: citation. Other earlier combinations based on the same basionym. Type of the basionym.

Designations of nomenclatural novelties (e.g., sp. nov., comb. nov., etc.) should be in bold and expilicitly mentioned in the abstract and with the description.

Type designations are included together with an indication of where they were designated, the year, and the author as in the Solanum nitidum example below. This reference should be listed in the References. If the author of the paper submitted is making the lectotypification, the phrase "designated here" is used (in compliance with the ICN).
For monographic work in which synonymy appears, each synonym should appear on a new line with its type on a separate line. Synonyms are presented in date order (oldest first) and homotypic synonyms are treated as separate entries. Please follow the format below:

Solanum nitidum Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. 2: 33, tab. 163. 1799.
Fig. 67
        Type: Peru. Junín: Tarma, May, June, H. Ruiz & J. Pavón s.n. (lectotype, designated by Knapp 2008c, pg. 320: MA [MA-747147]; isolectotypes: F [F-844722, frag.], G, MA [MA-747146, F neg. 29726]), P [P00366843, P00366844]).
Solanum calygnaphalum Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. 2: 31. 1799.
       Type: Peru. Junín and Huánuco: Tarma and Acomayo, H. Ruiz & J. Pavón s.n. (neotype, designated by Knapp 2008c, pg. 312: MA [MA-747146]).
Solanum gnaphaloides Pers., Syn. 1: 223. 1805, nom. nov. superfl.
       Type: Based on Solanum calygnaphalum Ruiz & Pav.
Witheringia angustifolia Dunal, Solan. Syn. 2. 1816.
       Type: Ecuador. Cotopaxi: Mt. Cotopaxi, A. Humboldt & A. Bonpland 3069 (holotype: P-Bonpl. [P00136351, Morton neg. 8171]).
Solanum rhamnoides Dunal, in DC., Prodr. 13(1): 100. 1852.
       Type: Bolivia. Palea [Palca?], A. D’Orbigny 293 (holotype: P [P00507312]; isotype: MO n.v.).
Solanum cotopaxense Dunal, in DC., Prodr. 13(1): 139. 1852.
       Type: Based on Witheringia angustifolia Dunal
Solanum theresiae Zahlbr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 13: 83. 1902.
       Type: Bolivia. La Paz: La Paz, Oct 1898, Prinzessin Therese von Bayern s.n. (holotype: M [M0166048, F neg. 6547]).

Use Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt and Powell 1992, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) for authors of botanical names. Authors should be given the first time a name is mentioned, or alternately in a table where all relevant names are listed (e.g., table of voucher specimens).

References cited only as part of nomenclatural matter and not elsewhere are not included in literature cited; use TL-2 for abbreviations.

Use Index Herbariorum acronyms for designations of herbaria.

In specimens citation, use the following formats:​

TYPE: COLOMBIA. Chocó: Municipio Tadó, 10 km de la carretera Tadó-Pereira, 40 m alt., 6 Feb 1989, W.J. Kress & B.E. Echeverry 89-2589 (holotype: US!; isotype: COL!).
Specimens Examined. COSTA RICA. Cartago: Turrialba, 1500 m, 4 May 1958, A. Brenes 13456 (CR);
Panama. Bocas del Toro: Oleoducto road to Chiriquí Grande, 1500 m, 2 Aug 1974, B. Hammel 13712 (MO, SEL); Chiriquí: Cerro Pando, 2400 m, 23 Aug 1987, S. Knapp 6543 (BM, MO, US); Veraguas: Santa Fé, Pacific slope, 1300-1350 m, 5 Jul 1975, T.B. Croat 49061 (A, GH, MO);

Author initials must be presented with type citations, but are optional in the specimens examined section. Either use the exclamation mark (!) to indicate a type specimen has been seen or indicate duplicates that have not been seen by the abbreviation n.v. (non visi).

Countries in the Specimens Examined section can be listed alphabetically or in geographical order; the method used should be explained in the Materials and Methods section.
If the paper presents original data, associated herbarium vouchers are cited. [Vouchers for seed and/or other collections should be included where pertinent. Dependent on the paper, reference to the original wild source may be required.] Vouchers are also cited from common names and uses taken from specimen labels, except if the information is taken from the literature in which case, a literature citation is given.

Herbarium vouchers state the collector and number, herbarium in which the voucher is located, and a clear annotation that the material represents the voucher for the study in question.

If the specimens seen for the study are numerous, selected specimens should be cited and the section entitled Selected Specimens Examined. In this case, all specimens seen for the study should be included in an Index to Numbered Collections (or Exsiccatae) section that is an Appendix to the main paper. Un-numbered specimens can be listed here, but they are of limited use to curators wanting to identify duplicates (a principal use of exsiccatae lists).

The Index to Numbered Collections should be arranged in alphabetical order by collector in the following format:
Ariza Espinar, L. 2798 (salicifolium); 2857 (angustifidum).
Armitage, F.B. 154/59 (seaforthianum).
Armstrong, E. 931, 1076, 1152 (umbelliferum).
Arnett, M. 8088 (umbelliferum).
Arockiasamy, D.I. 10038 (seaforthianum).
Aronson, J. 541 (macbridei); 860 (uncinellum).
Arp, G.K. 4532 (aligerum).
Arriaga C, R. 389 (aligerum).
Arsène, G. 2330, 2669, 2894, 5970 (dulcamaroides); 6424 (triquetrum); 9669 (dulcamaroides); 10014 (laxum).

Nucleic acid or protein sequences corresponding to equal or greater than 50 nucleotides are entered into an appropriate data bank, e.g., GenBank/EMBL. The accession numbers are provided before publication. Long sequences (exceeding two pages) will not be routinely published in text form, however they could be published as supplementary file.

Recording of New Names in IPNI

Submission and recording of all new names of vascular plants with the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) and listing the IPNI identifiers (Life Science Identifiers, or LSIDs) in the respective papers where the new names are published is a mandatory policy of Italian Botanist. The submission to IPNI is provided by the Editorial Office simultaneously with the publication process. The IPNI LSIDs can be linked directly from the PhytoKeys pages, or resolved and the associated information viewed through any standard web browser by appending the LSID contained in this publication to the prefix http://ipni.org/.

Listing of IPNI LSIDs in the publication ensures two-sided reference link between the original publication of the new name and IPNI database, as well as to all additional indexers using IPNI data, e.g., GBIF.

In addition, the high-resolution, full-color printed version of Italian Botanist which is identical to the published PDF, is deposited in the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, an IPNI partner institution, the Smithsonian Institution and Natural History Museum London.

Article Processing Charges

The publication of 150 pages per year is generously supported by the Società Botanica Italiana onlus to members of the society for the publication of collective contributions of the series Chromosome numbers for the Italian flora, Global and Regional IUCN Red List Assessents, Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora, Notulae to the Italian native vascular flora, Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens.

Articles accepted for publication before the expiration of the 150 pages quota will be published for FREE. After the expiration of the yearly quota, authors may opt to either cover a publication fee according to the table below, or wait with their publication until the beginning of the next year.

Alternatively, authors may opt to cover the Article Processing Charges before the expiration of the yearly quota, especially if these fees are supported by institutions or grants (see the price list below). This will free up publication fee waivers, helping the journal to publish additional valuable research.

Regular papers will be charged at €250 per article (for a maximum of 10 printed pages). Each additional page will be charged at €20 per page.

SBI members are not charged for 1 article (maximum of 10 printed pages) per year. In addition, they have a discount (10%) for each additional page.

Additional Services (Optional)

Optional service



Linguistic services

€ 15 per 1800 characters

For texts that require additional editing by a native English speaker

Tailored PR campaign

€ 300*

Press release, dedicated media and social networks promotion

Tailored PR campaign + Video interview

€ 450

Video interview organized by the Editorial Office

Paper reprints

At cost

On demand

*This service can be discounted or waived for articles of outstanding importance for the science and society

Writing a Press Release

Pensoft’s experienced PR team puts a lot of effort in the wide dissemination of the works we publish through press releases, news aggregators, blogs, social network communication and the mass media.

It goes without saying that press releases and news stories can have a major effect on the impact and popularity of research findings. Moreover, they are of benefit to all parties involved: the authors, their institutions, funding agencies, publishers and the society in general. Thanks to a well-established dissemination network, Pensoft press releases regularly provide the basis for print, online, radio and TV news stories in reputed international media outlets, including National Geographic, BBC, Sky News, CNN, New York Times, The Guardian, Deutsche Welle, Der Standard, DR, etc.

Here are some examples of Pensoft's press releases, posted on EurekAlert, which have enjoyed high popularity and thousands of views within the first days following their publication:

Our PR team invites you to prepare (or request) a short press release on your accepted paper whenever you find your research of public interest. We have provided a template and instructions to guide you through the specific text format.

While the press release needs to be in English, in case you find it suitable for the promotion of your study, you are welcome to also submit a translation of the press release in the following languages: French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese. Please note that all translations need to be based on the final English version of the press release as approved by our press officers.

We are always happy to promote your research by preparing a press release for you and coordinating our dedicated PR campaigns with the PR offices of our partnering institutions. You are welcome to approach us with your press release drafts or any queries regarding our PR campaign via email at either pressoffice@pensoft.net, or dissemination@pensoft.net.

To keep up with the latest news, subscribe to our blog and follow us on Twitter, Facebook and Google+. Also, keep an eye on EurekAlert! AAAS for our top breaking stories!

Data Publishing Guidelines

Pensoft strongly encourages and supports various strategies and methods for data publication, such as downloadable data packages supplementary to a research article, or hosted in and linked to data repositories. For biodiversity and biodiversity-related data the reader may consult the Strategies and guidelines for scholarly publishing of biodiversity data (Penev et al. 2017, Research Ideas and Outcomes 3: e12431. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e12431). For reader's convenience, we list here the hyperlinked table of contents of these extensive quidelines:

The core of the data publishing project of Pensoft is the concept of "Data Paper" developed in a cooperation with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Data Papers are peer-reviewed scholarly publications that describe the published datasets and provide an opportunity to data authors to receive the academic credit for their efforts. Currently, Pensoft offers the opportunity to publish Data Papers describing occurrence data and checklists, Barcode-of-Life genome data and biodiversity-related software tools, such as interactive keys and others.

Examples of data papers

Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database
A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan
Project Description: DNA Barcodes of Bird Species in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA
Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India
MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera)
Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition
Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain
FORMIDABEL: The Belgian Ants Database
Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea)

Florabank1: a grid-based database on vascular plant distribution in the northern part of Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital region)
Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN): a community contributed taxonomic checklist of all vascular plants of Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Greenland
Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain)

Nature Conservation:
Antarctic macrobenthic communities: A compilation of circumpolar information

Press releases on data papers
New incentive for biodiversity data publishing
Data publishing policies and guidelines for biodiversity data by Pensoft
First database-derived 'data paper' published in journal
A new type of data papers designed to publish online interactive keys
Data paper describes Antarctic biodiversity data gathered by 90 expeditions since 1956
Unique information on Belgian ants compiled and published through FORMIDABEL data paper
Database simplifies finding Canadian plant names and distribution
A synthesis of the 36451 specimens from the UNEX Herbarium in a new data paper

Data Quality Checklist and Recommendations


An empowering aspect of digital data is that they can be merged, reformatted and reused for new, imaginative uses that are more than the sum of their parts. However, this is only possible if data are well curated. To help authors avoid some common mistakes we have created this document to highlight those aspects of data that should be checked before publication.

By "mistakes" we do not mean errors of fact, although these should also be avoided! It is possible to have entirely correct digital data that are low-quality because they are badly structured or formatted, and, therefore, hard or impossible to move from one digital application to another. The next reader of your digital data is likely to be a computer program, not a human. It is essential that your data are structured and formatted so that they are easily processed by that program, and by other programs in the pipeline between you and the next human user of your data.

The following list of recommendations will help you maximise the re-usability of your digital data. Each represents a test carried out by Pensoft when auditing a digital dataset at the request of an author. Following the list, we provide explanations and examples of each recommendation.

Authors are encouraged to perform these checks themselves prior to data publication. For text data, a good text editor (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_text_editors) can be used to find and correct most problems. Spreadsheets usually have some functions for text checking functions, e.g. the "TRIM" function that removes unneeded whitespace from a data item. The most powerful text-checking tools are on the command line, and the website "A Data Cleaner's Cookbook" (https://www.polydesmida.info/cookbook/) is recommended for authors who can use a BASH shell.

When auditing datasets for authors, Pensoft does not check taxonomic or bibliographic details for correctness, but we will do basic geochecks upon request, e.g. test to see if the stated locality is actually at or near the stated latitude/longitude. We also recommend checking that fields do not show "domain schizophrenia", i.e. fields misused to containing data of more than one type.

Proofreading data takes at least as much time and skill as proofreading text. Just as with text, mistakes easily creep into data files unless the files are carefully checked. To avoid the embarrassment of publishing data with such mistakes, we strongly recommend that you take the time to run these basic tests on your data.





- The dataset is UTF-8 encoded

- The only characters used that are not numbers, letters or standard punctuation, are tabs and whitespaces

- Each character has only one encoding in the dataset

- No line breaks within data items

- No field-separating character within data items (tab-separated data preferred)

- No "?" or replacement characters in place of valid characters

- No Windows carriage returns

- No leading, trailing, duplicated or unnecessary whitespaces in individual data items



- No broken records, i.e. records with too few or too many fields

- No blank records

- No duplicate records (as defined by context)



- No empty fields

- No evident truncation of data items

- No unmatched braces within data items

- No data items with values that are evidently invalid or inappropriate for the given field

- Repeated data items are consistently formatted

- Standard data items such as dates and latitude/longitude are consistently formatted

- No evident disagreement between fields

- No unexpectedly missing data





  • The dataset is UTF-8 encoded

Computer programs do not "read" characters like "A" and "4". Instead, they read strings of 0's and 1's and interpret these strings as characters according to an encoding scheme. The most universal encoding scheme is called UTF-8 and is based on the character set called Unicode. Text data should always be shared with UTF-8 encoding, as errors can be generated when non-UTF-8 encodings (such as Windows-1252) are read by a program expecting UTF-8, and vice-versa. (See also below, on replacement characters). 

  • The only characters used that are not numbers, letters or standard punctuation are tabs and whitespaces

Unusual characters sometimes appear in datasets, especially when databases have been merged. These "control" or "gremlin" characters are sometimes invisible when data are viewed within a particular application (such as a spreadsheet or a database browser) but can usually be revealed when the data are displayed in a text editor. Examples include vertical tab, soft hyphen, non-breaking space and various ASCII control characters (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_character).

  • Each character has only one encoding in the dataset

We have seen individual datasets in which the degree symbol (°) is represented in three different ways, and in which a single quotation mark (') is also represented as a prime symbol, a right single quotation mark and a grave accent. Always use one form of each character, and preferably the simplest form, e.g. plain quotes rather than curly quotes.

  • No line breaks within data items

Spreadsheet and database programs often allow users to have more than one line of text within a data item, separated by linebreaks or carriage returns. When these records are processed, many computer programs understand the embedded linebreak as the end of a record, so that the record is processed as several incomplete records:

item A  itemB1          itemC



itemA           itemB1

itemB2          itemC

  • No field-separating character within data items (tab-separated data preferred)

Data are most often compiled in table form, with a particular character used to separate one field ("column") from the next. Depending on the computer program used, the field-separating character might be a comma (CSV files), a tab (TSV files), a semicolon, a pipe (|) etc.

Well-structured data keeps the field-separating character out of data items, to avoid confusion in processing. Because commas are commonly present within data items, and because not all programs understand how to process CSVs, we recommend using tabs as field-separating characters (and avoiding tabs within data items!): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab-separated_values.

  • No "?" or replacement characters in place of valid characters

When text data are moved between different character encodings, certain characters can be lost because the receiving program does not understand what the sending program is referring to. In most cases, the lost character is then represented by a question mark, as in "Duméril" becoming "Dum?ril", or by a replacement character, usually a dark polygon with a white question mark inside.

It is important to check for these replacements before publishing data, especially if you converted your data to UTF-8 encoding from another encoding.

  • No Windows carriage returns

On UNIX, Linux and Mac computers, a linebreak is built with just one character, the UNIX linefeed '\n' ('LF'). On Windows computers, a linebreak is created using two characters, one after the other: '\r\n' ('CRLF'), where '\r' is called a 'carriage return' ('CR'). Carriage returns are not necessary in digital data and can cause problems in data processing on non-Windows computers. Check the documentation of the program in which you are compiling data to learn how to remove Windows carriage returns.

  • No leading, trailing, duplicated or unnecessary whitespaces in individual data items

Like "control" and "gremlin" characters, whitespaces are invisible and we pay little attention to them when reading a line of text. Computer programs, however, see whitespaces as characters with the same importance as "A" and "4". For this reason, the following four lines are different and should be edited to make them the same:

Aus bus (Smith, 1900)

   Aus bus (Smith, 1900)

Aus bus (Smith,   1900)

Aus  bus   (Smith, 1900  )



  • No broken records, i.e. records with too few or too many fields

If a data table contains records with, for example, 25 fields, then every record in the table should have exactly 25 data items, even if those items are empty. Records with too few fields are often the result of a linebreak or field separator within a data item (see above). Records with too many fields also sometimes appear when part of a record has been moved in a spreadsheet past the end of the table.

  • No blank records

Blank records contribute nothing to a data table because they contain no information, and a tidy data table has no blank lines. Note, however, that a computer program looking for blank lines may not find what looks to a human like a blank line, because the "blank" line actually contains invisible tabs or whitespaces.

  • No duplicate records (as defined by context)

It can be difficult to find duplicate records in some datasets, but our experience is that they are not uncommon. One cause of duplicates is database software assigning a unique ID number to the same line of data more than once. Context will determine whether one record is a duplicate of another, and data compilers are best qualified to look for them.



  • No empty fields

 Fields containing no data items do not add anything to the information content of a dataset and should be omitted.

  •  No evident truncation of data items

The end of a data item is sometimes cut off, for example when a data item with 55 characters is entered into a database field with a 50-character maximum limit. Truncated data items should be repaired when found, e.g.

Smith & Jones in Smith, Jones and Bro

repaired to:

Smith & Jones in Smith, Jones and Brown, 1974

  • No unmatched braces within data items

These are surprisingly common in datasets and are either data entry errors or truncations, e.g.

Smith, A. (1900 A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23: 660-667.

5 km W of Traralgon (Vic

  • No data items with values that are evidently invalid or inappropriate for the given field

For example, a field labelled "Year" and containing years should not contain the data item "3 males".

  •  Repeated data items are consistently formatted

The same data item should not vary in format within a single dataset, e.g.

Smith, A. (1900) A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23: 660-667.

Smith, A. 1900. A new species of Aus. Zoologischer Anzeiger 23: 660-667.

Smith, A. (1900) A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23, 660-667, pl. ix.

  • Standard data items such as dates and latitude/longitude are consistently formatted

Data compilers have a number of choices when formatting standard data items, but whichever format is chosen, it should be used consistently. A single date field should not, for example, have dates represented as 2005-05-17, May 19, 2005 and 23.v.2005.

  • No evident disagreement between fields

If there are fields which contain linked information then these fields should be checked to ensure that they do not conflict with each other. For example, the year or an observation cannot be after the year it was published.


Year            Citation

1968            Smith, A. (1966) Polychaete anatomy. Academic Press, New York; 396 pp.


Genus           Subgenus

Aus             Bus (Aus)

  • No unexpectedly missing data

This is a rare issue in datasets that have been audited, but occasionally occurs. An example is the Darwin Core "verbatimLocality" field for a record containing a full latitude and longitude, but with the "decimalLatitude" and "decimalLongitude" fields blank.

  • Spelling of Darwin Core terms

Darwin Core terms are usually considered case sensitive, therefore you should use their correct spelling (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/).


We thank Dr. Robert Mesibov for preparing the Data Quality Checklist draft and Dr. Quentin Groom for reviewing it.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement


The publishing ethics and malpractice policies of Pensoft follow the relevant COPE guidelines (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) and in case a malpractice is suspected, journal Editors will act in accordance with them.

Open access

Pensoft journals adheres strictly to gold open access to accelerate the barrier-free dissemination of scientific knowledge. All published articles are made freely available to read, download, and distribute, immediately upon publication, given that the original source and authors are cited (Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY).  

For more details on Pensoft’s open access and copyright policy see the Copyright Information page.

Privacy statement

The names and email addresses present on journals’ websites will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of the journals and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

Open data publishing and sharing

Pensoft encourages open data publication and sharing, in accordance with Panton’s Principles and  Pensoft’s Data Publishing Policies and Guidelines for Biodiversity Data.
Data can be published in various ways, such as data files or packages supplementary to a research article, or hosted in and linked to data repositories.

Datasets should be deposited in an appropriate, trusted repository and the associated identifier (URL or DOI) of the dataset(s) must be included in the data resources section of the article. Reference(s) to datasets should also be included in the reference list of the article with DOIs (where available). Where no discipline-specific data repository exists authors should deposit their datasets in a general repository such as Dryad or Pangaea.

In Pensoft’s journals, open access to data is not compulsory, however highly recommended and encouraged. Open data publication is mandatory in the Biodiversity Data Journal,  where authors must make available all research materials or data, associated with a manuscript upon its submission.

Submission, peer-review and editorial process

The peer-review and editorial process is facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. Pensoft journals’ websites display stepwise description of the editorial process and list all necessary instructions and links. The later are also included in the respective email notification.

General: Publication and authorship

  • All submitted papers are subject to rigorous peer-review process by at least two international Reviewers that are experts in the area of the particular paper. 
  • The factors that are taken into account in review are relevance, soundness, significance, originality, readability and language. 
  • The journals allow a maximum of two rounds of review of a manuscript. The ultimate responsibility for editorial decisions lies with the respective Subject Editor and in some cases with the Editor-in-Chief. All appeals should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, who may decide to seek advice among the Subject Editors and Reviewers.
  • The possible decisions include: (1) Accept, (2) Minor revisions, (2) Major revisions, (3) Reject, but re-submission encouraged, (5) Reject. 
  • If Authors are encouraged to revise and resubmit a submission, there is no guarantee that the revised submission will be accepted. 
  • The paper acceptance is constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. 
  • No research can be included in more than one publication.

Responsibility of Authors

  • Authors are required to agree that their paper will be published in open access under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY) license.
  • Authors must certify that their manuscripts are their original work. 
  • Authors must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere. 
  • Authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. 
  • Authors should submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English and formatted in accordance with journal’s Author Guidelines.
  • Authors must participate in the peer review process. 
  • Authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. 
  • All Authors mentioned are expected to have significantly contributed to the research. 
  • Authors must notify the Editors of any conflicts of interest. 
  • Authors must identify all sources used in the creation of their manuscript. 
  • Authors must report any errors they discover in their published paper to the Editors.
  • Authors should acknowledge all significant funders of the research pertaining to their article and list all relevant competing interests.   
  • Other sources of support for publications should also be clearly identified in the manuscript, usually in an acknowledgement (e.g.,  funding of article processing charge for an open access article, or writing, language editing or editorial assistance).
  • The corresponding Author should provide the declaration of any conflicts of interest on behalf of all the Authors. Conflicts of interest may be associated with employment, sources of funding, personal financial interests, and membership of relevant organisations, or others.

Responsibility of Reviewers

  • The manuscripts will generally be reviewed by two or three experts with the aim of reaching a first decision as soon as possible. Reviewers do not need to sign their reports but are welcome to do so. They are also asked to declare any conflicts of interests.
  • The Reviewers are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as for the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. If Reviewers recognize that a manuscript requires linguistic edits, they should inform both Authors and Editor in the report.
  • Reviewers are asked to check whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable.
  • In cases of strong disagreement between the reviews or between the Authors and Reviewers, the Editors can judge these according to his/her expertise or seek advice from a member of the journal's Editorial Board.
  • Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity, including press releases addressed to science journalists and mass media.
  • During a second review round, the Reviewer may be asked by the Subject Editor to evaluate the revised version of the manuscript with regards to Reviewer’s recommendations submitted during the first review round.
  • Reviewers are asked to be polite and constructive in their reports. Reports that may be insulting or uninformative will be rescinded.
  • The Reviewers are asked to start their report with a very brief summary of the reviewed paper. This will help the Editors and Authors see whether the reviewer correctly understood the paper or whether a report might be based on a misunderstanding.
  • Further, the Reviewers are asked to comment on originality, structure and previous research:
  • Is the paper sufficiently novel and contributes to a better understanding of the topic under scrutiny, or is the work rather confirmatory and repetitive?
  • Is the introduction clear and concise? Does it place the work into the context that is necessary for a reader to comprehend aims, hypotheses tested, experimental design or methods? Are Material and Methods clearly described and sufficiently explained? Are reasons given when choosing one method over another one from a set of comparable methods? Are the results clearly but concisely described? Do they relate to the topic outlined in the introduction? Do they follow a logical sequence? Does the discussion place the paper in scientific context and go a step beyond the current scientific knowledge on the basis of the results? Are competing hypotheses or theories reasonably related to each other and properly discussed? Do conclusions seem reasonable?

Previous research: Is previous research adequately incorporated into the paper? Are references complete, necessary and accurate? Is there any sign that substantial parts of the paper were copies of other works?

  • Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
  • Reviewers should keep all information regarding papers confidential and treat them as privileged information. 
  • Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. 
  • Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.
  • Reviewers should also call to the Editors’ attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Responsibility of Editors

  • The Editors in Pensoft’s journals carry the main responsibility for the scientific quality of the published papers and base their decisions solely one the papers' importance, originality, clarity and relevance to publication's scope.
  • Subject Editor takes the final decision on a manuscript’s acceptance or rejection and his/her name is listed as "Academic Editor" in the header of each article.
  • The Subject Editors are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as for the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. 
  • Editors are expected to spot small errors in orthography or stylistic during the editing process and correct them.
  • Editors should always consider the needs of the Authors and the Readers when attempting to improve the publication. 
  • Editors should guarantee the quality of the papers and the integrity of the academic record. 
  • Editors should preserve the anonymity of Reviewers, unless the later decide to disclose their identities. 
  • Editors should ensure that all research material they publish conforms to internationally accepted ethical guidelines. 
  • Editors should act if they suspect misconduct, whether a paper is published or unpublished, and make all reasonable attempts to persist in obtaining a resolution to the problem. 
  • Editors should not reject papers based on suspicions, they should have proof of misconduct.
  • Editors should not allow any conflicts of interest between Authors, Reviewers and Board Members.


Research misconduct may include: (a) manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, (b) changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the article.

A special case of misconduct is the plagiarism, which is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.

If misconduct is suspected, journal Editors will act in accordance with the relevant COPE guidelines: http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines

Should a comment on potential misconduct be submitted by the Reviewers or Editors, an explanation will be sought from the Authors. If this is satisfactory and a mistake or misunderstanding has taken place, the matter can be resolved. If not, the manuscript will be rejected and the the Editors will impose a ban on that individual's publication in the journals for a period of three years.

In cases of published plagiarism or dual publication, an announcement will be made in both journals explaining the situation.

Appeals and open debate

We encourage academic debate and constructive criticism. Authors are always invited to respond to any editorial correspondence before publication. Authors do not have a right to neglect unfavorable comments about their work and to choose not to respond to criticisms.

No Reviewer’s comment or published correspondence may contain a personal attack on any of the Authors. Criticism of the work is encouraged and Editors should edit (or reject) personal or offensive statements.

The Author should submit their appeal on editorial decisions to the Editorial Office, addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or to the Managing Editor. Authors are discouraged from directly contacting Editorial Board Members and Editors with appeals.

Editors will mediate all discussions between Authors and Reviewers during the peer-review process, that is prior to publication. If agreement cannot be reached, Editors may consider inviting additional reviewers, if appropriate.

Editor-in-Chief will mediate all discussions between Authors and a Subject Editor.

The journals encourage publication of open opinions, forum papers, corrigenda, critical comments on a published paper and Author’s response to criticism.