Research Article
Research Article
Notulae to the Italian native vascular flora: 1
expand article infoFabrizio Bartolucci, Gianniantonio Domina§, Michele Adorni|, Alessandro Alessandrini, Francesco Angiulli#, Nicola Maria Giuseppe Ardenghi¤, Enrico Banfi«, Giuseppina Barberis», Gianni Bedini˄, Gianmaria Bonari˅, Mario Calbi¦, Franco Fenaroliˀ, Gabriele Galassoˁ, Giovanni Gestri, Luigi Ghillani|, Günter Gottschlich, Mauro Iberite, Marta Latini, Valerio Lazzeri, Gianluca Nicolella, Nicola Olivieri, Enrico Perrino, Lorenzo Peruzzi˄, Giuseppe Pisani, Francesco Roma-Marzio˄, Giovanni Russo, Francesco Scutellà, Giuseppe Silletti, Adriano Stinca, Robert Wagensommer, Chiara Nepi
‡ University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy
§ University Palermo, Palermo, Italy
| Unaffiliated, Parma, Italy
¶ Istituto Beni Culturali, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, Italy
# Unaffiliated, Bari, Italy
¤ Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
« Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano, Milano, Italy
» Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
˄ University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
˅ Università di Siena, Siena, Italy
¦ Unaffiliated, Genova, Italy
ˀ Unaffiliated, Brescia, Italy
ˁ Natural History Museum of Milan, Milan, Italy
₵ Unaffiliated, Prato, Italy
ℓ Unaffiliated, Tübingen, Germany
₰ Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma, Italy
₱ Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo, Livorno, Italy
₳ Unaffiliated, Teramo, Italy
₴ CIHEAM – Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari, Bari, Italy
₣ Unaffiliated, Vibo Valentia, Italy
₮ Unaffiliated, Foggia, Italy
₦ Comando Regionale Puglia, Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Bari, Italy
₭ Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
₲ Università di Catania, Catania, Italy
‽ University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Open Access


In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of native vascular flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations pertaining to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the genera Arundo, Bromopsis, Cistus, Crocus, Festuca, Galeopsis, Genista, Lamium, Leucanthemum, Nerium, Orobanche, Peucedanum, Pilosella, Polycnemum, Stipa and Viola.


Floristic data, Italy

How to contribute

The text for the new records should be submitted electronically to Chiara Nepi ( The corresponding specimen has to be sent to FI Herbarium: Sezione di Botanica Filippo Parlatore del Museo di Storia Naturale, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy). Those texts concerning nomenclatural novelties (typifications only for accepted names), exclusions, and confirmations should be submitted electronically to: Fabrizio Bartolucci ( Each text should be within 2,000 characters (spaces included).

Floristic records

Arundo donaciformis (Loisel.) Hardion, Verlaque & B.Vila (Poaceae)

+ TOS: Monti Livornesi, Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno), Castiglioncello, Via Brenta (WGS84: 43.407385°N; 10.418388°E), habitat sinantropico, 45 m, no exp., 15 Nov 2015, V. Lazzeri (FI, MSNM); Monti Livornesi, Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno), loc. Spianate (WGS84: 43.421434°N; 10.414124°E), formazioni mono- o paucispecifiche su suolo argilloso, 119 m, W, 15 Nov 2015, V. Lazzeri (FI, MSNM); Monti Livornesi, Livorno (Livorno), loc. Calignaia (WGS84: 43.469900°N; 10.349901°E), formazioni mono- o paucispecifiche su suolo argilloso, 38 m, no exp., 7 2015, V. Lazzeri (FI); Monti Livornesi, Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno), loc. Case Nuove (WGS84: 43.410023°N; 10.428159°E), habitat sinantropico, 42 m, no exp., 16 Jan 2016, V. Lazzeri (FI). – Species new for the flora of Toscana.

Hardion et al. (2012) restored A. donaciformis, a Franco-Ligurian endemic that differs from the Italo-Balkan and morphologically similar A. plinii Turra (= A. collina Ten.); it differs for the hairy upper glumes and for a larger size of the plants. The discovery of A. donaciformis in Toscana broadens southwards the range of this taxon. However, it will be also useful to count the chromosome number of the Tuscan plants in order to ascertain if they are characterized by the same ploidy level of those from Provence and Liguria (i.e. 2n = 18x = 108 chromosomes), as reported by Hardion et al. (2012, 2013, 2014).

V. Lazzeri, E. Banfi & G. Galasso

Bromopsis condensata (Hack.) Holub subsp. microtricha (Borbás) Jogan & Bačič (Poaceae)

+ LAZ: Subiaco (Roma), Monti Simbruini, Campominio (WGS84: 41.955194°N; 13.187632°E), prateria, 1675 m, 2 June 2015, G. Nicolella, det. N.M.G. Ardenghi & E. Banfi (RO); Vallepietra (Roma), Monti Simbruini, Monte Autore (WGS84: 41.955199°N; 13.205139°E), lungo il sentiero, 1763 m, 2 June 2015, G. Nicolella, det. N.M.G. Ardenghi & E. Banfi (RO); Supino (Frosinone), Monti Lepini, Santa Serena, (WGS84: 41.602318°N; 13.167664°E), prateria, 1157 m, 11 June 2015, G. Nicolella & M. Latini, det. N.M.G. Ardenghi & E. Banfi (FI, RO). – Subspecies new for the flora of Lazio.

This subspecies was described from Slovenia (Mount Vremščica or Auremiano) and until today in Italy it was recorded only for Friuli Venezia Giulia (Poldini and Oriolo 2002) and Lombardia (Banfi and Galasso 2005). This is the first record for the Italian peninsula and marks the new southern limit of this taxon’s distributional range. Bromopsis condensata subsp. microtricha can be distinguished from B. erecta (Huds.) Fourr. for the basal sheaths decaying into straight fibers (vs. entire) and the lack of marginal patent hairs in the proximal part of the leaf blades (vs. present). The younger and fresh sheaths are covered with a dense and short pubescence consisting of adpressed and antrorse hairs, enabling its separation from B. condensata subsp. condensata (provided with patent and longer hairs). On the contrary, the contraction of the panicle is not diagnostic since populations of B. erecta with narrow synflorescences can occasionally occur.

G. Nicolella, M. Latini, M. Iberite, E. Banfi & N.M.G. Ardenghi

Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae)

TOS. – Species to be excluded from the flora of Toscana.

Based on a putative record in the province of Florence by A. Borzì [“Sotto Vallombrosa a Donnini”], Piccioli (1888) reported Cistus albidus L. in Toscana for the first time. It was also reported by Baroni (1897–1908), but was not confirmed by later authors (Fiori 1924, Zangheri 1976). Rizzotto (1979) did not cite any herbarium specimen of C. albidus L. from Toscana: in fact, she stated that this species, in Italy, occurs along the Ligurian coasts and it is vicariated southwards by Cistus creticus L. subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet (cited as Cistus incanus L. by the author). Later, Pignatti (1982) reported C. albidus in Toscana without citing any locality, and this information was likely followed by Conti et al. (2005). It is possible that the occurrence reported by Pignatti (1982) was derived from Caruel (1860), although the same author corrected himself a few years later (Caruel 1870), because the locality [“A Sarzana nel M. Caprione”] actually falls in Liguria. We did not find any herbarium specimen collected by A. Borzì in Toscana in the herbaria of FI, PI, PAL and MS. In SIENA we found two specimens identified as C. albidus L.: one of these, from Herbarium Ricasolianum, collected in 1856 near Florence, resulted wrongly identified and attributable to C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus. The second one, collected in the same year, was correctly identified but the only information is the label’s header (Herbarium Tassi) and neither locality nor collector were reported. Recently, the curators of the herbarium of Siena affixed a generic information on collection locality (Siena) on this label, assuming that the plant was collected by A. Tassi himself. Considering the distribution range of the species reported by Rizzotto (1979), we conclude that the occurrence of C. albidus L. in Toscana is unlikely and the specimen of Herbarium Tassi comes from a cultivated individual or from a locality outside of Toscana.

F. Roma-Marzio, G. Bonari, G. Bedini & L. Peruzzi

Crocus longiflorus Raf. (Iridaceae)

PUG. – Species to be excluded from the flora of Puglia.

The species was indicated in Puglia at the end of the 19th century for the Murge plateau (Bianco 1962) and for the Gargano promontory (Fenaroli 1974), and recently confirmed for Gargano (Fiorentino and Russo 2002, Augello 2005, Licht 2008) and Lama Belvedere, in the province of Bari (Cavallaro et al. 2007).

All the autumn-flowering Crocus specimens that we collected in those areas were attributed to C. thomasii Ten. The pictures in Fiorentino and Russo (2002) and in Augello (2005), and the specimens in FI (Boschi alla Murgia di Ruvo di Puglia, 1897, Palanza sub C. longiflorus) and in BI (Lama Belvedere, Monopoli, 2005, Angiulli sub C. longiflorus), all belong to C. thomasii. Licht (2008) quoted Fenaroli (1974), Fiorentino and Russo (2002), and Augello (2005). Perhaps, the confusion between these two species was caused by the difficulty of observing the very small cilias along the leaf margins of C. thomasii and by the sometimes slightly fimbriated stigmas of the latter species. According to our observations, the only autumn-flowering Crocus species occurring in Puglia is C. thomasii.

R.P. Wagensommer, F. Angiulli, E.V. Perrino & G. Russo

Festuca rubra L. subsp. juncea (Hack.) K.Richt. (Poaceae)

+ LAZ: Vico nel Lazio (Frosinone), Monti Ernici, Campovano (WGS84: 41.822527°N; 13.373242°E), prateria di alta quota, 1880 m, 12 July 2015, G. Nicolella, det. N.M.G. Ardenghi (FI, RO). – Subspecies new for the flora of Lazio.

This subspecies is quite widespread in northern and central Italy (see Conti et al. 2005, Ardenghi et al. 2015), where it grows mostly in mountain grasslands, on acidic or superficially acidified basic soils (Foggi and Rossi 1996). However, its presence has probably been neglected due to confusion with F. rubra subsp. commutata (Gaudin) Markgr.-Dann., from which it can be safely separated based on tiller leaf blade anatomy and the presence of rhizomes (that, however, are difficult to sample).

G. Nicolella, M. Latini, M. Iberite & N.M.G. Ardenghi

Galeopsis bifida Boenn. (Lamiaceae)

+ LIG: Valbrevenna (Genova), Senarega (WGS84: 44.55715°N; 9.119247°E), orto incolto, 730 m, 9 September 2014, M. Calbi (FI). – Species new for the flora of Liguria.

It is a species with a Eurosiberic distribution. It was reported from Italy only in Lombardia, Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia and, doubtfully, in Piemonte (Conti et al. 2005); it was not yet recorded from Liguria.

G. Barberis & M. Calbi

Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC. (Fabaceae)

+ (INV) CAM: Status change from naturalized to invasive alien in Campania.

Genista aetnensis is endemic to the Mt. Etna in Sicilia and some localities in Sardegna (Pignatti 1982). It was imported in the Vesuvian area (Campania) one century ago within a reforestation program aimed at mitigating soil erosion and increasing slope stability (Agostini 1959). Nowadays, this species has become the dominant plant species on the Vesuvius Grand Cone, where it forms continuous plant communities of shrubs. According to Stinca et al. (2015), over a period of approximately 40 years G. aetnensis has succeeded in accumulateng considerable reserves of C, N, and P in the soil, thereby also modifying soil hydrological properties. For these reasons, this species should be considered invasive (“transformers” sensu Pyšek et al. 2004) in Campania.

A. Stinca

Lamium purpureum L. (Lamiaceae)

+ CAL: Serra San Bruno (Vibo Valentia), Monte Pecoraro (WGS84: 38.513735°N; 16.348555°E), ai bordi di un bosco di faggio e abete bianco, suolo acido derivato da disfacimento dei graniti, 1325 m, 10 May 2015, G. Pisani & F. Scutellà (FI). – Species new for the flora of Calabria.

Lamium purpureum is a species with Eurasian distribution (Pignatti 1982), occurring in Italy in almost all the administrative regions (Conti et al. 2005, Giardina and Raimondo 2007), but not recorded so far from Calabria. It is very frequent around Serra San Bruno (850 m), along roadsides and in the fields, but less common at higher elevations.

G. Pisani & F. Scutellà

Leucanthemum ligusticum Marchetti, R.Bernardello, Melai & Peruzzi (Asteraceae)

+ EMR: Bedonia (Parma), Segno Rosso di Val Gorotta (WGS84: 44.475964°N; 9.581916°E), radura con affioramenti rocciosi, 800 m, 12 August 2010, M. Adorni, A. Alessandrini & L. Ghillani (FI). – Species new for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

The species was only recently described by Melai et al. (2012). The plant is diploid and, therefore, one of the “basic units” of the genus Leucanthemum. It was previously recorded only in siliceous outcrops in eastern Liguria (provinces of Genova and La Spezia). The population that we found consists of a few plants, located in the high Valley of the Taro river, not far from the border with Genova province and a few kilometers from the Ligurian populations.

M. Adorni, A. Alessandrini & L. Ghillani

Nerium oleander L. subsp. oleander (Apocynaceae)

+ (CAS) MAR: Cupra Marittima (Ascoli Piceno), bordo di un muro situato a ridotta distanza dal Mare Adriatico, presso Via R.Taffetani (WGS84: 43.035864°N; 13.857731°E), bordo di muro, ca. 4 m, 7 September 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Marche.

Some young plants of this taxon, sometimes able to blossom, have developed on the edge of the perimeter wall of a building, on the border with a paved area. The young individuals have grown from seeds produced by specimens grown as ornamentals in nearby gardens and subjected to wind dispersal. In Italy, Nerium oleander subsp. oleander is native in Sicilia, Sardegna, Calabria, Basilicata, Campania, Puglia, Toscana, and Liguria (Conti et al. 2005), while it is recorded as alien species in Lazio, Abruzzo, Veneto, Lombardia, Trentino-Alto Adige, and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Pignatti 1982, Conti et al. 2005, Martini and Pavan 2008, Masin et al. 2009, Prosser et al. 2009).

N. Olivieri

Orobanche reticulata Wallr. (Orobanchaceae)

+ LIG: Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena (Savona), pendici orientali del Poggio Grande (WGS84: 44.107995°N; 8.157569°E), 653 m, 22 May 2015, G. Barberis & M. Calbi, det. G. Domina (FI). – Species confirmed for the flora of Liguria.

It is a species with European-Caucasian distribution (von Beck 1930), occurring in all the northern and central regions of Italy (Conti et al. 2005, Domina and Peruzzi 2010). The previous record from Liguria of O. reticulata (Peccenini et al. 2010) is wrong and to be referred to O. gracilis Sm. (Peccenini et al. 2012).

G. Barberis, M. Calbi & G. Domina

Peucedanum officinale L. subsp. officinale (Apiaceae)

+ LAZ: Latina (Latina), Strada Piccarello, presso area del mercato settimanale (WGS84: 41.458113°N; 12.916336°E), prati e incolti umidi inondati durante l’inverno, argini di fossati, 21 m, 10 July 2013, M. Iberite (FI, RO); ibidem, 20 September 2013 (FI, RO, Herb. M. Iberite); ibidem, 28 August 2015 (RO, Herb. M. Iberite). – Species new for the flora of Lazio.

This taxon is widespread in many administrative regions of Italy, with the exception of Trentino-Alto Adige, Marche, Umbria, Lazio, Sicilia and Sardegna it was mistakenly indicated for Valle d’Aosta and not confirmed for Campania and Calabria. Concerning Lazio, it has hitherto never been collected nor reported in the literature (Conti et al. 2005, 2007, Anzalone et al. 2010). In the studied area, between Strada della Rosa, Strada Piccarello, Via Rossetti and Via Isonzo (municipality of Latina), P. officinale occurs in two subpopulations distant about 700 m from one another. Overall, there are about 1,000 uneven-aged individuals that bloom and bear fruits regularly; occasional spring mowing does not prevent the plants from completing their phenological cycle. Contrary to a previous report by Pignatti (1982), the edaphic context is represented by sandy clayey soils, which are desiccated during the flowering/fruiting period of the species (July to September), but damp and often inundated during the winter months.

M. Iberite

Pilosella basifurca (Peter) Soják (Asteraceae)

+ FVG: Udine (Udine), M. Zoncolàn, Ovaro, derivazione per Malga Pozo (WGS: 46.501109°N; 12.912783°E), meadow, 1587 m, 25 June 2015, G. Gottschlich 64281 (FI, Herb. G. Gottschlich 64281). – Species new for flora of Friuli Venezia Giulia.

Pilosella basifurca is morphologically intermediate between P. officinarum Vaill. and P. sphaerocephala (Froel. ex Rchb.) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip. and perhaps of hybrid origin. It can be found within the distribution area of the eastern alpine P. sphaerocephala, and occurs in Italy in Lombardia, Trentino-Alto Adige, and Veneto (Conti et al. 2005).

G. Gottschlich

Polycnemum majus A.Braun (Amaranthaceae)

+ TOS: Chianni (Pisa), Monte Vitalba, sterrato sassoso lungo la strada che porta alla vetta, ca. 610 m (WGS84: 43.414047°N; 10.607888°E), June 2011, Gestri G. & V. Lazzeri (Herb. Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo di Livorno); Chianni (Pisa), Monte Vitalba strada sterrata nei pressi della vetta, ca. 644 m (WGS84: 43.414665°N; 10.598882°E), 8 September 2015, G. Gestri & V. Lazzeri (FI). – Species confirmed for the flora of Toscana.

The first reports of P. majus A.Braun for Toscana date back to Rossetti (1893) who listed some records from Livorno and from Garfagnana in addition to those of Levier for the river Arno and some older ones for the provinces of Lucca, Pisa, and Siena. Later, Fiori (1923) attributed to P. majus [sub P. arvense var. majus (A.Braun) Fiori] the same distribution of P. arvense L. [sub P. arvense var. typicum Fiori], Toscana included. This species was still considered as occurring in Toscana by Pignatti (1982) and by Jalas and Suominen (1988), but more recently P. majus was listed as a doubtful precence for this administrative region by Conti et al. (2005, 2007). In order to identify the plants from Mount Vitalba, the keys published by Jauzein (1995), Ball (1993), and Bolòs and Vigo (1990) were used, also taking into account the considerations made by Iamonico (2012).

G. Gestri, V. Lazzeri

Stipa capillata L. (Poaceae)

TOS. – Species to be excluded from the flora of Toscana.

This species was recently recorded for Toscana (Lazzeri 2015), based on a large population discovered at Parco dei Poggetti (Rosignano Marittimo, Livorno). Further and more accurate analyses allowed us to attribute these plants to Nassella neesiana (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth.

V. Lazzeri

Viola alba Besser subp. scotophylla (Jord.) Nyman (Violaceae)

+ PUG: Santeramo in Colle (Bari), loc. Lama di Lupo (UTM ED50: 33T 644340.4514020), at the base of a big rock in the Murgia, 455 m, 14 March 2015, G.N. Silletti (BI sub V. alba subsp. alba, scan in FI, Herb. G.N. Silletti). – Subspecies new for the flora of Puglia.

In Italy, V. alba occurs in all the administrative regions, in central and southern Italy usually as V. alba Besser subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) W. Becker (Conti et al. 2005). Recently, V. alba subsp. scotophylla was indicated for Tuscany (Pierini et al. 2009, included in V. alba subsp. alba), Lombardia (Martini et al. 2012), and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Erben 2014). A small population near Santeramo in Colle in Puglia has stolons, white flowers with violet spur, hairy capsule and other attributes of V. alba subsp. scotophylla. This taxon, not rare in northern Italy (e.g., Martini et al. 2012, Erben 2014) was included by Conti et al. (2005) in V. alba subsp. alba, but recognized by other authors, such as Valentine et al. (1968), Aeschimann et al. (2004), Martini et al. (2012), and Erben (2014). Our finding is the southernmost so far in Italy.

G.N. Silletti, R.P. Wagensommer, E.V. Perrino & F. Fenaroli


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