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Research Article
Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 1
expand article infoGabriele Galasso, Gianniantonio Domina§, Michele Adorni|, Nicola Maria Giuseppe Ardenghi, Enrico Banfi, Gianni Bedini#, Alessio Bertolli¤, Giuseppe Brundu«, Mario Calbi», Lorenzo Cecchi˄, Carlo Cibei», Marco D'Antraccoli˅, Aldo De Bastiani¦, Giorgio Faggiˀ, Luigi Ghillani|, Mauro Iberiteˁ, Marta Latiniˁ, Valerio Lazzeri, Paola Liguori, Karol Marhold, Roberto Masin, Silviana Mauri, Giuliano Mereu, Gianluca Nicolellaˁ, Nicola Olivieri, Simonetta Peccenini, Enrico Perrino, Lorenzo Peruzzi#, Alessandro Petraglia, Brunello Pierini, Filippo Prosser¤, Francesco Roma-Marzio#, Enrico Romani, Franco Sammartino, Alberto Selvaggi, Giovanni Signorile, Adriano Stinca‡‡, Filip Verloove§§, Chiara Nepi||
‡ Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano, Milano, Italy
§ University Palermo, Palermo, Italy
| Unaffiliated, Parma, Italy
¶ Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
# University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
¤ Fondazione Museo Civico di Rovereto, Rovereto, Italy
« University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
» Unaffiliated, Genova, Italy
˄ Museo di Storia Naturale, Università di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
˅ Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
¦ Unaffiliated, Cesiomaggiore, Italy
ˀ Unaffiliated, Cesena, Italy
ˁ Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma, Italy
₵ Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo, Livorno, Italy
ℓ Unaffiliated, Empoli, Italy
₰ Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Praha, Czech Republic
₱ Unaffiliated, Montegrotto Terme, Italy
₳ Unaffiliated, Osnago, Italy
₴ Unaffiliated, Bari Sardo, Italy
₣ Unaffiliated, Teramo, Italy
₮ Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
₦ CIHEAM – Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari, Bari, Italy
₭ Università di Parma, Parma, Italy
₲ Unaffiliated, Pisa, Italy
‽ Unaffiliated, San Giorgio Piacentino, Italy
₩ Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l’Ambiente, Torino, Italy
₸ Museo Orto Botanico, Università di Bari, Bari, Italy
‡‡ Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
§§ Botanic Garden of Meise, Meise, Belgium
|| University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Open Access

Abstract

In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations for Italy or for Italian administrative regions for taxa in the genera Agave, Arctotheca, Berberis, Bidens, Cardamine, Catalpa, Cordyline, Cotoneaster, Dichondra, Elaeagnus, Eragrostis, Impatiens, Iris, Koelreuteria, Lamiastrum, Lantana, Ligustrum, Limnophila, Lonicera, Lycianthes, Maclura, Mazus, Paspalum, Pelargonium, Phyllanthus, Pyracantha, Ruellia, Sorghum, Symphyotrichum, Triticum, Tulbaghia and Youngia.

Keywords

Floristic data, Italy

How to contribute

The text for the new records should be submitted electronically to Chiara Nepi (chiara.nepi@unifi.it). The corresponding specimen has to be sent to FI Herbarium: Sezione di Botanica Filippo Parlatore del Museo di Storia Naturale, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy). Those texts concerning nomenclatural novelties (typifications only for accepted names), exclusions, and confirmations should be submitted electronically to: Gabriele Galasso (gabriele.galasso@comune.milano.it). Each text should be within 2,000 characters (spaces included).

Floristic records

Agave fourcroydes Lem. (Asparagaceae)

+ (NAT) SIC: Favignana (Trapani), Arcipelago delle Egadi, Isola di Marettimo, tratto iniziale del sentiero tra il paese e il castello di Capo Troia (WGS84: 37.974208°N; 12.066014°E), gariga e macchia rada, 64 m, 20 March 2015, L. Cecchi, F. Selvi, I. Bettarini, G. Certini & F. Furini (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Sicilia.

A small population (a few dozen adult individuals on an area of about 1 ha) settled in clearings of the garrigue, approx. 100 m from the village and next to a similar naturalized settlement of Agave americana L. Both remains of mature infructescences and many vegetative propagules were observed all around the main population nucleus and along a nearby path, suggesting that the species is actively spreading.

L. Cecchi

Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns (Asteraceae)

CAM. – Alien species to be excluded from the flora of Campania.

Brundu et al. (2015) reported Arctotheca calendula for Campania, without indicating the literature source. This record is the result of an erroneous interpretation of Wilson’s (1998) paper, which refers this alien plant to the Campania township in SE Tasmania. Therefore, this species is to be excluded from Campania, the administrative region of Italy.

A. Stinca & G. Brundu

Berberis aquifolium Pursh (Berberidaceae)

Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt.

+ (CAS) PUG: Foggia (Foggia), Villa Comunale (UTM WGS84: 33T 546.4590), siepi e aiuole, ca. 64 m, 19 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

The species is present with some young individuals in the context of hedges and flower beds in some shady areas of gardens on a calcareous alluvial vertisol. The collected specimens originated from seeds produced by some individuals cultivated for ornament in the Villa Comunale. The nomenclature is according to Adhikari et al. (2015).

N. Olivieri

Bidens subalternans DC. (Asteraceae)

+ (CAS) LAZ: Genzano di Roma (Roma), loc. Ponte Tre Armi (UTM WGS84: 33T 310879.4616501), incolti e margini stradali, 265 m, 14 November 2015, M. Latini (FI, RO); Tivoli (Roma), nei tornanti della Via Tiburtina venendo da Roma (UTM WGS84: 33T 316.4646), 16 November 1997, G. Corazzi (RO sub B. bipinnata). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Lazio.

The samples collected are ascribed to B. subalternans on the basis of two characters, achenes and bristled awns (Tutin 1976, Bogosavljević and Zlatković 2015, PlantNET 2016+). A specimen was also found in RO (Herb. B. Anzalone, sub B. bipinnata L.). Moreover photographic material, available on-line, already pointed out the occurrence of this species in Lazio (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?t=7679), probably neglected due to confusion with B. bipinnata.

M. Latini, G. Nicolella & M. Iberite

Bidens vulgata Greene (Asteraceae)

+ (NAT) LIG: Genova (Genova), Molini di Trensasco (WGS84: 44.452378°N; 8.961393°E), cunette e bordi stradali, 118 m, 29 November 2015, S. Peccenini (FI, GE). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Liguria.

The species occurs in several territories of Liguria, having been observed also in Castiglione Chiavarese (Genova) at 520 m (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=7131), in Riva Ligure (Imperia) (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=67537), and in Monte Gazzo (Genova municipality, Genova) at 308 m (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=81046).

S. Peccenini & C. Cibei

+ (NAT) SAR: Villagrande Strisaili (Ogliastra), alveo del Torrente Bau Sa Teula (UTM ED50: 32S 548.4423), greto, 80 m, 4 October 2015, G. Mereu, det. N. Ardenghi & G. Mereu (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Sardegna.

Until now, Bidens vulgata has been recorded only from Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardia, and Emilia-Romagna (Celesti-Grapow et al. 2009, Verloove and Ardenghi 2015). After the record made by Verloove and Ardenghi (2015), the occurrence of the species has been ascertained also for other regions (http://www.actaplantarum.org/flora/flora_info.php?id=1211). B. vulgata (up to now misidentified with B. frondosa L.) may be more widespread than hitherto believed both across Sardegna and in the whole Italian territory.

G. Mereu & N.M.G. Ardenghi

+ (NAT) TOS: Collesalvetti (Livorno), loc. Nugola (WGS84: 43.587651°N; 10.439258°E), wetland along a path in a mixed oak wood at the border of a muddy area, 13 m, 9 October 2015, V. Lazzeri (FI); Pisa (Pisa), Le Piagge, lungo la sponda dell’Arno (WGS84: 43.707239°N; 10.411268°E), sponda fluviale, 3 m, 15 October 2015, B. Pierini & L. Peruzzi (PI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Toscana.

The occurrence of Bidens vulgata in Italy was so far limited to Lombardia, Friuli Venezia Giulia and Emilia-Romagna (Verloove and Ardenghi 2015, and literature cited therein). On the basis of the high similarity between B. vulgata and B. frondosa L., both in terms of morphology and ecology, B. vulgata may have been sometimes overlooked and confused with the latter, whose presence in the region is documented since a very long time (Caruel 1860).

V. Lazzeri, B. Pierini & L. Peruzzi

Cardamine occulta Hornem. (Brassicaceae)

= Cardamine debilis D.Don, nom. illeg. ≡ Cardamine hamiltonii G.Don ≡ Cardamine flexuosa With. subsp. debilis O.E.Schulz

+ (CAS) TAA: Trento (Trento), Le Albere, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza (UTM WGS84: 32T 663.5102), synanthropic habitat, 191 m, no exp., 20 November 2015, V. Lazzeri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Trentino-Alto Adige.

After several authors reported this taxon under different names, Marhold et al. (2016) clarified that the oldest name applicable for the so-called “Asian Cardamine flexuosa” is C. occulta. In Italy C. occulta was first found in Sardegna (Lazzeri et al. 2013, sub C. flexuosa With. subsp. debilis O.E.Schulz), then in other central and northern Italian regions (Toscana and Lombardia: Ardenghi and Mossini 2014, sub C. flexuosa subsp. debilis; Piemonte: Verloove and Ardenghi 2015, sub C. hamiltonii G.Don; Veneto: Marhold et al. 2016, sub C. occulta). The present finding broadens the distribution of C. occulta in northern Italy eastwards to Trentino-Alto Adige. As observed in Sardegna, C. occulta has been found growing together with the similar C. hirsuta L. in urban environments. Its presence in this region could date back to several years ago, moreover its distribution may be much broader than reported, given the possible confusion with C. hirsuta.

V. Lazzeri & K. Marhold

Catalpa bignonioides Walter (Bignoniaceae)

+ (CAS) ABR: Pescara (Pescara), presso Viale G. D’Annunzio (UTM WGS84: 33T 435.4700), margine stradale, ca. 3 m, 20 September 2015, N.Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Abruzzo.

Some young individuals grow on a sandy substrate in a private courtyard adjacent to the road. The site is located between buildings in the urban area.

N. Olivieri

Cordyline australis (G.Forst.) Endl. (Asparagaceae)

+ (CAS) MAR: Cupra Marittima (Ascoli Piceno), Via Tommaso da Marano, giardino pubblico prossimo al litorale adriatico (UTM WGS84: 33T 406.4765), epifita su stipite di Phoenix canariensis, ca. 2 m, 12 November 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Marche.

Some young individuals have developed on the trunk of medium-sized Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in a public garden located close to the sea. Cordyline australis is cultivated in the surroundings, where it regularly flowers and fruits. As already observed for Campania (Stinca et al. 2013) and Abruzzo (Olivieri 2015), here too C. australis grows as an epiphyte on P. canariensis.

N. Olivieri

Cotoneaster coriaceus Franch. (Rosaceae)

ITALIA (ABR, LOM, TOS). – Alien species to be excluded from the flora of Italy (Abruzzo, Lombardia, and Toscana).

On the basis of the following Notula, this species is to be excluded from Italy. Probably also the recent record for the flora of Campania (Del Guacchio 2015) is to be reffered to Cotoneaster lacteus W.W.Sm.

G. Galasso & E. Banfi

Cotoneaster lacteus W.W.Sm. (Rosaceae)

Cotoneaster coriaceus auct., non Franch.

+ (NAT) ITALIA (LOM): Laveno-Mombello (Varese), Punta San Michele, porzione N (UTM ED50: 32T 470.5085), rupi sul lago, ca. 197 m, NW, 22 June 2007, G. Galasso (MSNM sub C. coriaceus); Milano (Milano), Parco delle Cave (Baggio), incolti tra Via E. Quarti e Via P. Marchesi (Villa Marazzi) (UTM ED50: 32T 507.5035), vegetazione a Robinia pseudoacacia e Rubus spp., 125 m, no exp., 6 June 2010, G. Galasso (MSNM sub C. coriaceus). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Italy (Lombardia).

+ (CAS) ABR: San Vito Chietino (Chieti), loc. Marina, incolto al margine di strada urbana sul versante collinare rivolto verso il Mare Adriatico (UTM WGS84: 33T 454.4684), margine stradale, ca. 20 m, 7 September 2014, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Abruzzo.

+ (NAT) TOS: Isola d’Elba, Marciana (Livorno), strada (Via di Lavacchio) tra Poggio e la Madonna del Buonconsiglio (UTM ED50: 32T 597.4737), bosco, 240 m, NE, 19 June 2008, G. Galasso (FI sub C. coriaceus, MSNM sub C. coriaceus); Montalbano, Serravalle Pistoiese (Pistoia), ex cava presso il Podere Selva Piana (UTM ED50: 32T 648.4862), versante scosceso di cava abbandonata, ca. 150 m, NE, 18 August 2010, G. Gestri (MSNM sub C. coriaceus). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Toscana.

Until now, Cotoneaster lacteus has been misidentified in Italy with C. coriaceus Franch., with the latter species having been recorded for Lombardia (Banfi et al. 2009, Banfi and Galasso 2010, Galasso 2010), Toscana (Galasso et al. 2011), and Abruzzo (Olivieri 2015). Indeed, Lu and Brach (2003) and Dickoré and Kasperek (2010) regard these names as heterotypic synonyms. Nevertheless, the monograph by Fryer and Hylmö (2009), followed by Stace (2010), considers them as distinct species. The specimens collected in Italy correspond to C. lacteus as they show its morphological features (Fryer and Hylmö 2009): new growth tomentose-villous, mostly remaining so, or only slowly glabrescent (versus new growth tomentose, very soon glabrescent), leaves on sterile shoots distichous, 42–120 × 20–60 mm, adaxially dull (vs. often spiralled, 34–52 × 16–24 mm, adaxially shiny). As stated by Tison and de Foucault (2014), if C. coriaceus and C. lacteus are regarded as distinct, then the plants cultivated and naturalized appear to be C. lacteus.

G. Galasso & E. Banfi

Cotoneaster pannosus Franch. (Rosaceae)

+ (CAS) PUG: Otranto (Lecce), Viale Rocamatura (UTM WGS84: 34T 797.4450), epifita sullo stipite di Phoenix canariensis, ca. 7 m, 20 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

A single plant, identified according to Fryer and Hylmӧ (2011), has developed on the trunk of an individual of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud. The Cotoneaster specimen is small, but it is able to produce flowers and fruits.

N. Olivieri

Dichondra micrantha Urb. (Convolvulaceae)

+ (CAS) CAL: Scalea (Cosenza), in centro (UTM WGS84: 33S 567.4407), fessure della pavimentazione, 18 m, 15 August 2013, A. Stinca (PORUN); Montegiordano (Cosenza), loc. Marina, presso l’alveo del Canale Cardona (UTM WGS84: 33T 636.4431), pineta a Pinus halepensis, ca. 10 m, 21 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Calabria.

In Montegiordano, some individuals of this species occur in the sporadic herbaceous vegetation that colonizes the sandy soil with litter of needles inside an artificial plantation of Pinus halepensis Mill., located at a short distance from the coast and characterized by sparse shrubs of Vitex agnus-castus L., Cistus monspeliensis L. Pistacia lentiscus L., and Nerium oleander L. subsp. oleander.

N. Olivieri & A. Stinca

Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. (Elaeagnaceae)

+ (CAS) ABR: Pescara (Pescara), margine della “Pineta Dannunziana” (UTM WGS84: 33T 437.4700), arbusteto rado sotto le chiome di esemplari di Pinus halepensis, ca. 2 m, 9 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Abruzzo.

+ (CAS) PUG: Otranto (Lecce), Viale Rocamatura (UTM WGS84: 34T 797.4450), epifita su stipite di Phoenix canariensis, ca. 7 m, 20 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

In Abruzzo, a young individual of this species grows in a site that is partially shaded by the foliage of Pinus halepensis Mill. In Puglia, the plants have developed on the trunk of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud or within hedges of Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T.Aiton growing nearby.

N. Olivieri

+ (NAT) EMR: Cervia (Ravenna), Pineta di Cervia presso Milano Marittima (UTM WGS84: 33T 288.4906), pineta litoranea, 1 m, 18 October 2014, G. Faggi (BOLO); Langhirano (Parma), loc. Calicella (UTM WGS84: 32T 601.4948), scarpata boscata a dominanza di Robinia pseudoacacia, 250 m, 9 March 2015, M. Adorni (FI); ibidem, 17 October 2015, M. Adorni (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for fhe flora of Emilia-Romagna.

The population from Calicella comprises many individuals whose size varies from a few decimeters to several meters. The population from Pineta di Cervia, consisting of several scattered plants, was also reported on Acta Plantarum Forum (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?t=43711).

M. Adorni, G. Faggi & L. Ghillani

+ (NAT) EMR: Castelvetro Piacentino (Piacenza), Po a Castelvetro (UTM WGS84: 32T 578.4996), vegetazione spondale su sabbia, 33 m, 8 August 2011, E. Romani (FI); Monticelli d’Ongina (Piacenza), Stagni Maginot (UTM WGS84: 32T 576.4997), incolto erboso su suolo eutrofico, 33 m, 16 July 2013, E. Romani (FI); Roccabianca (Parma), confluenza tra i fiumi Taro e Po (UTM WGS84: 32T 599.4984), saliceto a Salix alba, 31 m, 8 July 2015, M. Adorni (FI). – Naturalized alien subspecies new for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

This subspecies is a Neotropical alien plant, whose presence in the Piacenza province was predicted by Banfi et al. (2005). Its occurrence in Emilia-Romagna was also reported in Acta Plantarum Forum (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?t=52672). The observed populations are locally abundant.

E. Romani, M. Adorni, E. Banfi, G. Galasso & L. Ghillani

Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Balsaminaceae)

+ (NAT) TOS: Abetone (Pistoia), Val di Luce, Rio Le Pozze (UTM WGS84: 32T 630.4889), gravel river bed, 1350 m, no exp., 2 September 2015, F. Sammartino (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Toscana.

Impatiens glandulifera is an important invader of riparian habitats (Hejda and Pyšek 2006, Cockel and Tanner 2012) which, in turn, are among the most susceptible to deterioration (Richardson et al. 2007). So far, the distribution of I. glandulifera in Italy was limited to the northern regions, where it exhibited mild to severe invasiveness (Celesti-Grapow et al. 2009). The present finding represents the first clue of its possible ongoing diffusion southwards. The plants that have been found in Rio Le Pozze have likely spread through hydrochory, thus suggesting a consolidated presence of I. glandulifera in Toscana. Further research will clarify the distribution and invasiveness of I. glandulifera in the region.

V. Lazzeri & F. Sammartino

Impatiens parviflora DC. (Balsaminaceae)

+ (NAT) EMR: Neviano degli Arduini (Parma), terrazzo fluviale del Torrente Enza, poco a valle della confluenza del Fosso della Massagna (UTM WGS84: 32T 604.4925), bosco ripariale a dominanza di Alnus incana, 370 m, 8 June 2010, A. Petraglia (Herb. A. Petraglia); Palanzano (Parma), Torrente Enza a valle del ponte di Selvanizza (UTM WGS84: 32T 600.4922), bosco ripariale a dominanza di Alnus incana, 445 m, 7 June 2013, M. Adorni (FI). – Status change from casual to naturalized alien for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

Alessandrini et al. (2009) report the species as casual for Emilia-Romagna, but without further information (A. Alessandrini, in litt.). Impatiens parviflora was found in continuous and extensive populations within hygrophilous Alnus incana (L.) Moench woods at the middle course of the river Enza, which marks the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio nell’Emilia.

A. Petraglia, M. Adorni & L. Ghillani

Iris albicans Lange (Iridaceae)

+ (NAT) CAL: Oriolo (Cosenza), lungo la SP481 nei pressi del km 19 (WGS84: 40.043177°N; 16.429091°E), incolto sul margine stradale, 640 m, 15 April 2014, F. Roma-Marzio & P. Liguori (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Calabria.

Many shoots were found along the edge of the road, probably originating from rhizomes of cultivated plants growing in several neighbouring houses. Several plants were also observed in the nearby locality named Serra Salice (Oriolo municipality, Cosenza). According to Conti et al. (2005) and Celesti-Grapow et al. (2009), this species was so far recorded only for Lazio and Campania.

F. Roma-Marzio & P. Liguori

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Sapindaceae)

+ (CAS) PUG: Foggia (Foggia), Villa Comunale (UTM WGS84: 33T 546.4590), siepi e aiuole, ca. 64 m, 19 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

Some young individuals grow interspersed with ornamental shrubs as part of some hedges and flower beds. They have originated from seeds produced by an adult specimen located in an area near the entrance of the gardens; they are sometimes able to bear fruit.

N. Olivieri

Lamiastrum argentatum (Smejkal) Soják (Lamiaceae)

Lamium argentatum (Smejkal) Henker ex G.H.Loos ≡ Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. & Polatschek subsp. argentatum (Smejkal) Stace

+ (NAT) EMR: Sant’Agata Feltria (Rimini), loc. Sapigno Pietra Bassa, fuori paese (UTM WGS84: 33T 275.4866), scarpatella al margine di strada, 402 m, 15 July 2012, G. Faggi (BOLO); Terenzo (Parma), loc. Cella di Palmia (UTM WGS84: 32T 592.4943), bosco mesofilo al margine di strada, 460 m, 5 November 2012, L. Ghillani (Herb. L. Ghillani); ibidem, 11 March 2014, M. Adorni & L. Ghillani (Herb. L. Ghillani); Salsomaggiore Terme (Parma), loc. Scipione Ponte (UTM WGS84: 32T 576.4965), margine di strada, 30 March 2015, M. Adorni (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

All the observed populations cover the soil compactly. The population of Cella di Palmia, the most extensive, has spread to several dozen meters from the roadside towards the centre of the woods. It can, therefore, be considered naturalized. The population of Sapigno Pietra Bassa was also reported in Acta Plantarum Forum (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?t=43830).

M. Adorni, G. Faggi & L. Ghillani

Lantana camara L. subsp. aculeata (L.) R.W.Sanders (Verbenaceae)

+ (CAS) ITALIA (ABR): Pescara (Pescara), Piazza Italia (UTM WGS84: 33T 435.4701), bordo di selciato nei pressi di un palazzo, ca. 2 m, 30 July 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien subspecies new for the flora of Italy (Abruzzo).

Some young individuals grow in the spaces between the limestone blocks at the foot of a palace coated with the same material. Lantana camara subsp. aculeata is cultivated in the vicinity, with individuals bearing fruit regularly. It was identified according to Sanders (2012).

N. Olivieri

Ligustrum lucidum W.T.Aiton (Oleaceae)

+ (CAS) CAL: Montegiordano (Cosenza), loc. Marina, presso l’alveo del Canale Cardona (UTM WGS84: 33T 636.4431), pineta a Pinus halepensis, ca. 10 m, 21 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Calabria.

Some young individuals grow in a coastal pine forest of Pinus halepensis Mill. in rather cool, shaded areas, on sandy substrate covered by a litter of pine needles; in areas where it is less represented, the sparse undergrowth consists of Vitex agnus-castus L., Cistus monspeliensis L., Pistacia lentiscus L., and Nerium oleander L. subsp. oleander.

N. Olivieri

Limnophila × ludoviciana Thieret (Plantaginaceae)

(Limnophila indica (L.) Druce × L. sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume)

+ (NAT) VEN: Porto Tolle (Rovigo), nei pressi di loc. Gnocca (MTB 1039/4) (UTM WGS84: 33T 288.4975), risaia, -1,5 m, 27 August 2013, G. Favaro, R. Masin, B. Pellegrini & L. Tosetto (Herb. R. Masin); ibidem, 13 September 2015 (Herb. R. Masin); Gazzo Veronese (Verona), 250 m a WSW della Turbina presso Corte Nuova, nel SIC “Palude del Busatello” (MTB 0832/3) (UTM WGS84: 32T 663.4996), risaia, 15 m, 16 October 2015, A. Bertolli, F. Prosser, G. Tomasi & S. Andreatta (FI, ROV). – Naturalized alien nothospecies new for the flora of Veneto.

This hybrid was identified for the first time by Piccoli (1974) for Emilia-Romagna, based on populations discovered a few years earlier in rice fields in the Ferrara province (Codigoro and Jolanda di Savoia; see Buzzi 1973). He also provided a detailed description of the plant (Piccoli 1974). Viggiani et al. (2003) provided several color pictures of plants from the same areas. The plants collected in Veneto are identical to those of Ferrara province, according to the above-cited sources. Piccoli et al. (2014) indicated this hybrid as occurring in Italy only in the administrative region of Emilia-Romagna, specifically in Ferrara and Reggio nell’Emilia provinces (see also http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=79251). The new findings reveal a gradual expansion of the hybrid, which appears to be relatively slow, perhaps due to its estimated infertility or low fertility.

F. Prosser, R. Masin & A. Bertolli

Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton (Caprifoliaceae)

= Lonicera standishii Carrière f. standishii = Lonicera standishii Carrière f. lancifolia Rehder

+ (NAT) ITALIA (VEN): Vidor (Treviso), riva sinistra del Fiume Piave (UTM WGS84: 33T 271.5082), terreno alluvionale, boscaglia chiara mista, 135 m, 10 February 2015, A. De Bastiani (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Italy (Veneto).

Lonicera fragrantissima is a bushy, not climbing honeysuckle native to central China. It grows in forests and scrubs at elevations between 100 and 2,700 m (Yang et al. 2011). The species belongs to the same clade as L. hispida Pallas ex Schult., and possibly a few other Asian entities as suggested by Theis et al. (2008). It is sold as a garden shrub for winter flowering and flower fragrance. It is self-fertile and produces red berries (bibaccae, according to Spjut 1994) that are easily dispersed in late spring by birds, especially blackbirds.

E. Banfi & A. De Bastiani

Lycianthes rantonnetii (Carrière) Bitter (Solanaceae)

Solanum rantonnetii Carrière

+ (CAS) LIG: Cogoleto (Genova), strada vicinale del Chiappino (WGS84: 44.396700°N; 8.636420°E), bordo strada, 160 m, 13 October 2015, M. Calbi (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Liguria.

M. Calbi & S. Peccenini

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K.Schneid. (Moraceae)

+ (CAS) TOS: Pisa (Pisa), Tenuta di San Rossore, Parco Regionale Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli, Via Angrogna, poco dopo l’incrocio con Via Bicchi nei pressi della foce del Fiume Morto Nuovo (WGS84: 43.73180°N; 10.28179°E), retroduna al margine di un bosco con prevalenza di Quercus ilex, substrato sabbioso, 4 m, 7 October 2015, M. D’Antraccoli & F. Roma-Marzio (FI). – Casual alien species confirmed for the flora of Toscana.

Maclura pomifera is a deciduous and dioecious tree native to eastern USA (Burton 1990). It is planted worldwide as an ornamental. The species readily escapes from cultivation and invades disturbed areas (Burton 1990). At present, it is reported for all Italian regions except Valle d’Aosta and was recorded as doubtful in Toscana (Conti et al. 2005, 2007, Bacchetta et al. 2009, Celesti-Grapow et al. 2009). We found a single tree near the shoreline.

F. Roma-Marzio, M. D’Antraccoli, G. Bedini & L. Peruzzi

Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis (Mazaceae)

+ (NAT) LAZ: Roma (Roma), Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere (UTM WGS84: 33T 290.4640), nelle fessure della pavimentazione (sampietrini), 19 m, 16 May 2015, A. Selvaggi (FI, Herb. A. Selvaggi). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Lazio.

The presence of M. pumilus in Italy was recorded for the first time sub Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze at the Botanical Garden of Pavia by Peccenini Gardini (1985), then in other localities of Lombardia (e.g. Desfayes 1997, Banfi and Galasso 2010, http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?t=54117). In Piemonte, it has been reported as casual in some localities (Antonietti and Dellavedova 2013), and as naturalized and widespread in others (Selvaggi and Dellavedova 2015). In Veneto, the species was collected and identified for the first time in 2011 by Francesco Di Carlo, and later confirmed by Galasso et al. (2013). In most of the above-mentioned Italian regions, and also in Roma, the species grows between the cracks of the stone paving of urban centres. The presence of M. pumilus in Lazio and Roma was not recorded by Anzalone et al. (2005, 2010) and Celesti-Grapow et al. (2013).

A. Selvaggi

Paspalum dasypleurum Kunze ex Desv. (Poaceae)

= Paspalum pachyrrhizum Steud.

+ (CAS) ITALIA (LOM): Olgiate Molgora (Lecco), Pianezzo, tra Via Bagaggera e Via Pianezzo, di fronte alla fontanella presso la chiesa (WGS84: 45.709998°N; 9.394985°E), spigolo umido tra la strada e il muro, 280 m, NNW, 2003, S. Mauri (MSNM sub P. dilatatum, scan in FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Italy (Lombardia).

Recently, in the MSNM herbarium, we found a specimen collected in 2003 under the name P. dilatatum that was visibly different from the latter species, especially by having a greater number of racemes with smaller spikelets. Therefore, it was first thought to belong to P. urvillei Steud., a South American weed that is widely naturalized beyond its native distribution area, also in Europe (for instance in the Iberian Peninsula; e.g. Litzler 1979). However, on closer examination, it proved to differ also from this species. According to Zuloaga and Morrone (2005) these plants correspond to P. dasypleurum. A comparison with type material of this species as well as of P. pachyrrhizum Steud., a heterotypic synonym, both preserved in BR, confirmed our identification. This species is native to Argentina and Chile where it is a well-known forage grass or weed. To our knowledge, it has not been recorded before in the Old World. Field surveys conducted in 2015 could not confirm the current persistence of this species; therefore, it is considered a casual alien. However, it may have been overlooked so far in Italy or elsewhere in Europe. Therefore, a key for the members of the informal Dilatata group occurring in Europe is presented.

1 Panicle branches (2–)3–5(–7); spikelets 2.8–4.0 mm long; leaf sheath usually glabrous (in Europe) P. dilatatum
Panicle branches more numerous, up to 30; spikelets 1.8–2.8 mm long; leaf sheath usually pubescent (in Europe) 2
2 Spikelets acute at apex; lower lemma and upper glume as long as fertile floret P. dasypleurum
Spikelets acuminate at apex; lower lemma and upper glume markedly longer than fertile floret P. urvillei

F. Verloove, E. Banfi, G. Galasso & S. Mauri

Pelargonium zonale (L.) L’Hér. (Geraniaceae)

+ (CAS) PUG: Isole Tremiti (Foggia), Isola di San Domino, loc. Piana Grande (UTM WGS84: 33S 540.4663), incolto ai margini di un sentiero all’interno dell’isola, ca. 50 m, 27 July 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

Several individuals grow in uncultivated areas along trails at the edge of natural vegetation consisting of pine woods of Pinus halepensis Mill.

N. Olivieri

Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. (Phyllanthaceae)

+ (CAS) LIG: Genova (Genova), giardini fra Corso Dogali e Corso Carbonara (WGS84: 44.416718°N; 8.927880°E), aiuola, 50 m, May 2015, S. Peccenini (GE); ibidem, 20 September 2015, S. Peccenini (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Liguria.

Native to the Mascarene Islands (Indian Ocean) and naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas (America, Australia), it grows since at least 20 years in the greenhouses of the Genova Botanical Garden, where it bears fruit and disseminates regularly. The recent climate changes has allowed it to spread to the urban environment. The species, so far known as naturalized only in Sicilia (Crisafulli et al. 2011), was identified according to Webster (1970).

S. Peccenini

Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M.Roem. (Rosaceae)

+ (CAS) ABR: Pescara (Pescara), “Pineta Dannunziana” (UTM WGS84: 33T 437.4700), radure in pineta, ca. 3 m, 9 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Abruzzo.

Several individuals of different sizes grow in clearings of the “Pineta Dannunziana”. The species is accompanied by Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T.Aiton, Laurus nobilis L., Ficus carica L., as well Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.

N. Olivieri

Ruellia simplex C.Wright (Acanthaceae)

+ (CAS) PUG: Otranto (Lecce), presso Via M. Corti (UTM WGS84: 34T 797.4450), margini stradali e bordi di aiuole, ca. 7 m, 20 August 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

Several individuals have developed on the edge of a road leading to a private courtyard. The plants were identified according to Wunderlin and Hansen (2008). According to the same authors, R. simplex is a perennial species native to Mexico, West Indies, western Bolivia, SW Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and NW Argentina. In tropical and subtropical regions, it is grown as an ornamental plant and this has caused its spread into the wild in the southeastern regions of the United States (e.g., Florida) where it occurs as an invasive species (Wunderlin and Hansen 2008). Recently, it has been reported for Italy in Sardegna by Lazzeri et al. (2015).

N. Olivieri

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae)

+ (CAS) PUG: Casamassima (Bari), svincolo SS100 per Casamassima-Turi (WGS84: 40.948337°N; 16.930767°E), margine stradale, 220 m, 13 October 2015, G. Signorile & E.V. Perrino (BI, scan in FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Puglia.

Sorghum bicolor occurs in all regions of southern Italy (including Sicilia and Sardegna) (Conti et al. 2005), although, in the past, it was recorded in Campania and Abruzzo by mistake (Conti et al. 2007). It is an archaeophyte that does not usually form stable populations (Celesti Grapow et al. 2009).

G. Signorile & E.V. Perrino

Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L.Nesom (Asteraceae)

Aster pilosus Willd.

+ (CAS) EMR: Varano de’ Melegari (Parma), Torrente Ceno nei pressi di Viazzano (UTM WGS84: 32T 582.4949), greto ghiaioso, 170 m, 12 August 2011, M. Adorni (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

The population consists of several plants distributed over an area of several dozen square meters.

M. Adorni, E. Banfi, G. Galasso & L. Ghillani

Triticum cylindricum (Host) Ces., Pass. & Gibelli (Poaceae)

Aegilops cylindrica Host

+ (NAT) EMR: Fidenza (Parma), stazione ferroviaria di Castione Marchesi (UTM WGS84: 32T 582.4974), bordi di massicciata ferroviaria, 52 m, 22 May 2013, M. Adorni & L. Ghillani (FI); Terenzo (Parma), Rocca San Genesio, lungo una mulattiera nei pressi della Rocca (UTM WGS84: 32T 585.4943), lungo mulattiera, 500 m, 25 June 2014, L. Ghillani (FI). – Naturalized alien species new for the flora of Emilia-Romagna.

Triticum cylindricum is an archaeophyte of Pontic origin (Pignatti 1982, Celesti-Grapow et al. 2009) reported in northern Italy but not in Emilia-Romagna (Perrino et al. 2014). According to the same authors, this species also occurs in Basilicata, Puglia, and Sardegna. At the time of discovery, both populations appear to be fairly large.

M. Adorni, E. Banfi, G. Galasso & L. Ghillani

Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (Amaryllidaceae)

+ (CAS) ITALIA (MAR): Cupra Marittima (Ascoli Piceno), al margine di Viale T. da Marano, in un’area prossima al Mare Adriatico (UTM WGS84: 33T 406.4765), epifita su stipite di Phoenix canariensis, ca. 4 m, 7 September 2015, N. Olivieri (FI). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Italy (Marche).

This species was identified according to Matthews (2011). It grows in isolation at the base of the trunk of a medium-sized individual of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud. The species was also observed in Emilia-Romagna in 2008 (http://www.actaplantarum.org/floraitaliae/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=45026&p=289861).

N. Olivieri

Youngia japonica (L.) DC. subsp. japonica (Asteraceae)

Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.

+ (CAS) ITALIA (LIG): Genova (Genova), giardini fra Corso Dogali e Corso Carbonara (WGS84: 44.416692°N; 8.928248°E), bordo strada, 50 m, 11 March 2015, S. Peccenini (FI, GE). – Casual alien species new for the flora of Italy (Liguria).

This species is native to East Asia, and is naturalized in warm areas of all continents. It was identified according to Shi and Kilian (2011).

S. Peccenini

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