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Research Article
Chromosome numbers for the Italian flora: 5
expand article infoLorenzo Peruzzi, Giovanni Astuti, Katia Francesca Caparelli, Marco D'Antraccoli, Francesco Roma-Marzio
‡ Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Open Access

Abstract

In this contribution new chromosome data obtained on material collected in Italy are presented. It includes 7 chromosome counts for Centaurea (Asteraceae).

Keywords

cytogeography, cytotaxonomy, karyotype, Centaurea

How to contribute

The text concerning new chromosome data should be submitted electronically to Lorenzo Peruzzi (lorenzo.peruzzi@unipi.it), including indications on voucher specimens and methods used.

Chromosome counts

Centaurea aspromontana Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp. (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 (Fig. 1)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Sotto piano Zivernà (Reggio Calabria), 21 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009594).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea aspromontana, as well as all other species investigated in this contribution, belongs to C. deusta Ten. species complex, within C. sect. Phalolepis (Cass.) DC. Centaurea aspromontana is endemic to southern Calabria, where it can be found in a few localities (Peruzzi et al. 2017). Our chromosome count, performed on plants from the locus classicus (Brullo et al. 2001, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is the first for this species (Bedini et al. 2010 onwards) and confirms the basic chromosome number x = 9 typical of C. sect. Phalolepis (Hilpold et al. 2014).

Figure 1. 

Centaurea aspromontana Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp., 2n = 18. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Centaurea calabra G.Caruso, S.A.Giardina, Raimondo & Spadaro (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 + 0–2B (Fig. 2)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Presila Catanzarese, tra Sersale e Zagarise (Catanzaro), 6 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009592).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea calabra is endemic to a narrow area restricted to the Ionian coast, typically associated to chasmophytic communities, in Calabria (Caruso et al. 2013). Our chromosome count, performed on plants collected very close to the locus classicus (Caruso et al. 2013, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is the first for this species (Bedini et al. 2010 onwards). Out of 13 root tips sampled, six showed a regular 2n = 18 chromosome complement, five showed 2n = 18 + 1B and two showed 2n = 18 + 2B.

Figure 2. 

Centaurea calabra G.Caruso, S.A.Giardina, Raimondo & Spadaro, 2n = 18 + 1B. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Centaurea ionica Brullo (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 (Fig. 3)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Rupi presso Stilo (Reggio Calabria), 21 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009595).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea ionica is endemic to Calabria, where it can be found in just five known localities mainly distributed near the Ionian side of the Region (Peruzzi et al. 2017). Our chromosome count, performed on plants from the locus classicus (Brullo et al. 2001, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is the first for this species (Bedini et al. 2010 onwards).

F. Roma-Marzio, K.F. Caparelli, L. Peruzzi

Figure 3. 

Centaurea ionica Brullo, 2n = 18. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Centaurea poeltiana Puntillo (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 (Fig. 4)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Aspromonte, Pietra Impiccata (Reggio Calabria), 21 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009596).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea poeltiana is endemic to Calabria, where it grows in the southern part of the Region, mainly in beech or oak forests (Peruzzi et al. 2006). Our chromosome count, performed on plants from the locus classicus (Puntillo 1996, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is different from the only other published count, i.e., 2n = 36, obtained from plants collected near Montalto di Aspromonte, a few kilometres away from our sampling area (Peruzzi et al. 2006). Accordingly, this species shows at least two cytotypes, at diploid and tetraploid level.

Figure 4. 

Centaurea poeltiana Ten., 2n = 18. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Centaurea sarfattiana Brullo, Gangale & Uzunov (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 (Fig. 5)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Sila, Lago Passante (Catanzaro), 6 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009593).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea sarfattiana is endemic to the Sila massif (Calabria), where it grows in dwarf shrubs vegetation on siliceous substrata (Brullo et al. 2004). Our chromosome count, performed on plants from the locus classicus (Brullo et al. 2004, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is the first for this species (Bedini et al. 2010 onwards).

Figure 5. 

Centaurea sarfattiana Brullo, Gangale & Uzunov, 2n = 18. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Centaurea scillae Brullo (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 + 2B (Fig. 6)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Tra Bagnara e Scilla (Reggio Calabria), 21 August 2017, L. Peruzzi et K.F. Caparelli (PI n° 009590).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea scillae is endemic to Calabria, where it grows in few localities along the Tyrrhenian coast in the extreme south-western part of the Region (Peruzzi et al. 2017). Our chromosome count, performed on plants from the locus classicus (Brullo et al. 2001, Peruzzi et al. 2015), is the first for this species (Bedini et al. 2010 onwards). Out of six root tips sampled, all showed 2n = 18 + 2B.

Figure 6. 

Centaurea scillae Brullo, 2n = 18 + 2B. Scale bar: 10 μm.

G. Astuti, K.F. Caparelli, L. Peruzzi

Centaurea deusta Ten. (Asteraceae)

Chromosome number. 2n = 18 (Fig. 7)

Voucher specimen. ITALY. Calabria. Monte Sellaro (Cerchiara di Calabria, Cosenza), 30 August 2017, L. Peruzzi (cypselae collected in the field and stored in the Germplasm Bank of Department of Biology, Pisa, under acc. GB-PI-1665).

Method. Squash preparations were made on root tips obtained from germinating cypselae. Root tips were pre-treated with 0.4% colchicine for 3 hours and then fixed in Carnoy fixative solution for 1 hour. After hydrolysis in HCl 1N at 60 °C, the tips were stained in leuco-basic fuchsine.

Observations. Centaurea deusta occurs in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin, from Italy to Bulgaria (Greuter 2006 onwards). Our chromosome count is the first from Calabria, and it agrees with previous counts obtained from Italy (Damboldt et al. 1973, Brullo et al. 1992, Tessitore et al. 1994). All the extra-Italian counts also gave 2n = 18 chromosomes (Rice et al. 2014 onwards). Matthas (1976) found one B-chromosome on plants from Puglia and Campania.

Figure 7. 

Centaurea deusta Ten., 2n = 18. Scale bar: 10 μm.

L. Peruzzi, G. Astuti, M. D’Antraccoli, F. Roma-Marzio

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